Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

2018 |2017 |2016 |2015 |2014 |2013 |2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2007 |2006 |2005 |2004 |2003 |2002 |2001 |2000 |1999 |
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, and Michael J. Kieser

Professor and Director of Pomology and Viticulture Program, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University of I Lane, Parma, ID 83660, U.S.A. 2Research Associate of Pomology and Viticulture Program, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University ofI Lane, Parma, ID 83660, U.S.A.

Key words: Alternative fruit, berry size, cool region grape, crop load, grape adaptation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 11-14.

Abstract: Cluster management in table grapes is an essential cultural practice for production of high quality table grapes and this practice has not been studied in the Intermountain northwest region in the USA. Thus, the objective of this project was to determine the optimal cluster threshold for improving yield and berry quality attributes of Alborz table grape in the inland Pacific Northwest United States during 2010 through 2012. Non-thinned control vines had 71 clusters in 2010 but had 39 and 40 during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Clusters in non-thinned control vines were longer but lighter than those in the other treatments. Berries in the non-thinned control vines were always lighter in weight and smaller in size than those in the other treatments. Berries from vines with 28 clusters tended to have more uniform red color with lower overall green color while those from non-thinned control had more green color. Vines with 20 and 28 clusters tended to have greater soluble solids concentration (SSC) but those in non-thinned control and with 36 clusters had lower SSC. Overall, the cumulative yields of non-thinned control vines were similar to those with 36 clusters during two out of three years. Considering all quality attributes, between 28 and 36 clusters per vine was the optimal number for production of yield and quality attributes.
Edi Santosa,, Nobuo Sugiyama, Ani Kurniawati, Adolf Pieter Lontoh, Maryati Sari and Krisantini

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia. 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.

Key words: Amorphophallus muelleri, apomictic, Araceae, clonal variation, floral morphology, flower diversity, gibberellin, glucomannan, iles-iles, morphological variation, natural flowering, phenotypic plasticity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 15-29.

Abstract: Morphological variation in triploid apomicts Amorphophallus muelleri has been postulated low, here, we present for the first time macroscopic variation in floral morphology from natural and gibberellin treatments. Agamosporous A. muelleri exhibited morphological variations on 35 out of 45 floral characters. Organ variation was apparent on peduncle, spathe, stigma, carpel, and appendix; that could relate to different genetic background. It seems that gibberellin application at initial stage of flowering incresed the existing morphological variation; causing phenotypic plasticity in three characters, i.e., sheath length, disposition of second spathe and degree of limb apex shape. Present study implies that floral characters can be used as key to determine true-to-type of A. muelleri. Further study is needed to clarify the variation on apomict A. muelleri using approaches such as metabolomics and hormonal dynamic during flowering.
T.T. Tuan, N.S. Thien, H.C. Nguyen, D.H. Nguyen, L.Q. Loan, T.D. Thai, N.T.H. Trang, N.H. Dung, D.D. Giap, T.X. Du, T.T. Huong and D.H. Truong

Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 9/621 Ha Noi Avenue. Linh Trung ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho, Tan Phong, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 3Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry, 140 Le Trong Tan, Tay Thanh, Tan Phu, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Key words: Banana extract, coconut water, Dendrobium officinale, DPPH assay, phytoconstituents.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 41-45.

Abstract: Tissue culture has become a promising technique to produce biomass and active secondary metabolisms in some species of medicinal plant in short periods of time. However, most of the plant growth regulators utilized as vital agents in the culture process are harmful to human bodies. In this study, Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo PLBs was subcultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose, 8 g L-1 agar, and various concentrations of coconut water or banana extract to investigate the effect of these organic additives on Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) proliferation and shoots regeneration. Subsequently, the chemical composition of the material was qualitatively analyzed by standard color reactions and the methanolic extract were also tested upon DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition assay for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity assessment, respectively. The nutrient screening showed that treating 0.3 g fresh PLBs of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo in medium containing 20% coconut water produced the highest PLB biomass (2.21 g) whereas the similar culturing using 20% banana extract generated only 1.98 g PLB biomass. The qualitative chemical tests recognized the presence of various phytoconstituents such as glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, and saponins. The DPPH assay revealed the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 0.84 mg.mL-1. In addition, this methanol extract showed a stronger inhibitory activity against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. These finding suggested that coconut water could be a potential alternative nutrient to common unhealthy regulators in the production of the biomass of interest.
Z. Khazaei Kojori, M. Rezaei, A. Sarkhosh and S. Gharangik

Horticulture Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood, Iran. 2Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida Gainesville FL 32611 U.S.A. 3Agricultural Biotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood, Iran.

Key words: Bud break, scale removal, growth inhibitors, plant growth regulator, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 50-54.

Abstract: We tested the effects of bud scale removal and different application rates of gibberellin (GA3) on bud break of dormant vegetative buds of two apricot cultivars. The shoot explants of "Jafari" and "Rajabali" cultivars were collected from one-year-old dormant branches and cultured in woody plant medium (WPM), supplemented with 2 mg L-1 of benzyl amino purine (BAP), 0.04 mg L-1 3-bndolebutyric acid (IBA). Treatments included three different concentrations of GA3 (4, 6, and 8 mg L-1), and removed and unremoved scale bud forms. The results indicated that none of the unremoved scale buds sprouted even when GA3 treatments were used (P?0.01). The average of bud sprouting in removed scales buds was 62.77%. The maximum bud sprouting (72.5%) occurred in treatment with 8 mg L-1 of GA3 and removed scale buds. There was a significant difference between two apricot cultivars on vegetative dormant bud break percentage when scale removal of buds was done. The removed scale bud of "Jafari" and "Rajabali" cultivars sprouted 55.22% and 70.33%, respectively. This study showed that the scales are probably containing inhibitory substances such as abscisic acid and by removing them, bud break will occur. Also, this method provides the possibility of in vitro culturing of apricot trees in non-growing seasons (winter).
M. Muthukumar, Anju Bajpai and S. Rajan

Division of Crop Improvement and Biotechnology, Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow, India.

Key words: Mango, chloroplast genes, hybridity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 55-59.

Abstract: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) encompasses of diverse varieties for different traits owing to their evolution by open pollination and natural selection processes over several generations. Phylogenetic relatedness and confirmation of hybridity of out-crossed progenies in mango are the pre-requisites for improving the precision of selection in trait based breeding. In this context, two chloroplast genes namely trnL and trnF genes localized within the chloroplast LSC region were used for sequence characterization of 8 mango varieties/hybrids to affirm hybridity and trace their inheritance. Sequence annotation and analysis revealed that both these genes were able to discriminate the 8 varieties. The hybridity of Arunika, a progeny generated from a cross between Amrapali and Vanraj, was also confirmed. Sequence level variations in the hybrids in comparison with the parents indicated that the inheritance of chloroplast genes is not strictly maternal but could be even paternal or biparental in nature. Thus, chloroplast genes which were usually thought to be markers for plant species discrimination could also apparently be used as genetic markers for hybridity confirmation at the population level.
Sinan Akin and Tolga Erdem

Nam?k Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Biosystem Engineering Department, 59030-Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: Walnut, evapotranspiration, vegetative growth parameters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 60-63.

Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the growing season 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the water use and vegetative growth parameters of walnut trees under different amount of irrigation water. The irrigation water was applied based on a ratio of Class A pan evaporation as 50, 75 and 100 % through drip irrigation. In the first year of the study in all treatments water was applied 8 times amounting between 58.30 and 116.59 mm irrigation water. In the second year, irrigation was applied 15 times and 95.26 and 190.47 mm of irrigation water was applied. Results revealed that the seasonal evapotranspiration in the treatments during the measurement period varied from 264.41 and 304.77 mm in 2014 and from 346.49 and 418.76 mm in 2015 depending on the irrigation treatment. The effects of different irrigation practices on the vegetative growth parameters of walnut trees were also studied. The study revealed that the amount of irrigation water applied to the walnut trees had no significant effect on vegetative growth parameters.
Jagdish Singh Arya, Narendra Singh, Preeti Singh Arya and Anil Kant

Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organization, C/o 56 APO, Leh-Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) India-194 101. DIHAR, DRDO, C/o 56 APO, Leh-Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) India-194101.

Key words: Allium cepa L., seedling, set, cold desert, trans-Himalaya

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 64-68.

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of two different planting materials (set and seedling) and genotypes on bulb yield, its quality and vegetative growth. The experimental material comprised of two planting material and ten genotypes. The experiments were conducted at High Altitude Research, Defence Research and Development Organization, Leh during 2013 and 2014 in Randomized Block Design with five replications. There was significant effect of planting material and genotypes on all the studied parameters. Wall Brown genotype showed highest plant survival, chlorophyll content, days to maturity, polar diameter, equatorial diameter, average bulb weight and bulb yield when grown through set among all the genotypes. The highest plant height and number of leaves, leaf area, were obtained in the genotype Brown Spanish. The highest TSS and dry matter were observed in the genotype Red Cereole. The lowest double/deformed bulbs and neck thickness was observed in the genotypes Lock Roy and Red Cereole. The results indicated that all the genotypes under set planting performed better than seedling ones.
Georgios F. Tsanakas,, Chrysothemis Georgakopoulou-Voyiatzi and Demetrios G. Voyiatzis

Laboratory of Floriculture, 2Laboratory of Biology of Horticultural Plants, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Key words: Arching, bending, cultivation, flower, high rack, hydroponics, Rosa, shoot

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 175-179.

Abstract: In the light of the global financial crisis, inexpensive and easily applicable cultivation techniques are a necessity for the grower in order to maintain his profit, while old cultivation techniques resulting in low productivity and yield are gradually eliminated. In the present paper the bending cultivation system of greenhouse cut roses is described, with its two key modifications: the ‘arching’ and the ‘high rack’ practice. The advantages of this system, that can improve the quality of flower shoots and increase production of cut roses, are described along with the commercial and physiological characteristics of the cut flower shoots and the overall physiology of the rose plant. The impact of shoot bending on the sink-source relationship in rose plants is also assessed. Moreover, the cultivation technique of partially removing the first compound leaf below the harvest cut is described and according to this treatment, an early harvest up to 7-10 days (15-20%) can be achieved. Finally, the effect of the pruning height on the quality and yield is discussed. The above mentioned cultivation techniques can be very easily applied with minimum cost, especially in cases when harvest programming for high-demand seasons is important.
K. Pavitra, A. Rekha and K.V. Ravishankar

Division of Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560 089, India. 2Department of Biotechnology, Centre for Post Graduate Studies, Jain University, Jayanagar, Bengaluru 560 011, India. 3Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560 089, India.

Key words: Musa; microRNA; transcription factors; Fusarium wilt; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 181-195.

Abstract: Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc1) is one of the important diseases affecting banana production. MicroRNAs, the short non-coding RNAs containing 22 to 24 nucleotides function in post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as gene expression regulators relate to several abiotic stress responses that have already been reported. However, the evidence for the interaction of miRNAs-mRNA in plant response to biotic stresses is very limited. Hence, this study mainly focuses on microRNAs and their target genes in fusarium wilt infection in banana. Here, we have examined the miRNA-mRNA expression patterns between two contrasting banana genotypes in response to fungal infection using quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR). A total of 6 miRNAs and 9 targets were examined for their expression at two-time points after infection (3 and 10 days post inoculation (dpi)) in both uninfected control and infected root samples. Based on expression analysis, we observed early and continuous down regulation of miRNAs and up-regulation of the nine targets in tolerant genotype “Calcutta-4”. This negative relation was not observed in the susceptible genotype “Kadali”. The mode of expression level of miRNAs and their putative target genes will help in understanding the roles of miRNAs imparting tolerance to fusarium wilt in banana (Musa spp.).
Moritani Shigeoki, Nanjo Hirotada and Itou Atsushi

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan. 2Professor Emeritus, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan. 3Agriculture Research Institute, Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, 82-9 Tanaka, Kuroishi, Aomori, 036-0522, Japan.

Key words: strawberry, cooling, geo-thermal energy, heat pump, temperature, greenhouse

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 186-190.

Abstract: A commercial heat pump was utilized to cool strawberry plants using a heat exchanger well at 10 m of soil depth. Two lines of strawberry were planted to grow fully on a high bench of 20 m length. The cooling treatment was conducted through a water tube connected to the chiller tank of the heat pump. A single water tube was buried under the soil surface. Two kinds of set-up for the water tube on the soil surface were designed to cool the strawberry crown. Compared with that of the control, the temperature of crown and soil was effectively lowered by the two treatments. Regardless of the setup of the water tube, the temperature of soil and crown did not differ between the two treatments. Considering the high water temperature of the heat exchanger tank of the heat pump system, the length of the heat exchange well was insufficient for the extraction of sufficient geothermal energy in this experiment. However, the converted heat pump and facile establishment of wells achieved cooling of the 4 benches effectively and at a reasonable cost.
Mariani Sembiring, Sarah Alifa and Bintang

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatra Utara, Indonesia.

Key words: Andisol, growth of mustard, microbial phosphate solubilization and SP36 fertilizer

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 196-199.

Abstract: Andisol is a land formed by volcanic ash and has a problem in the availability of phosphate (P), as a result the use of P fertilizer becomes ineffective. Andisol affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung has pH 4.83 which can affect the availability of P in the soil. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Microbial Phosphate Solubilization application and SP36 (fertilizer) dose to the efficiency of P fertilizing and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in Andisol land affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung. This research used factorial randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was Microbial Phosphate Solubilization i.e. without application (M0), 30 mL Burkholderia cepacia (M1), 30 mL Talaromyces pinophilus (M2). The second factor was SP 36 with five levels i.e. P0 = 0%, P1 = 25% = 50% P3, P4 = 75%, and P5 = 100% of the recommended dose (0g, 0.325g, 0.65g, 0.975g and 1.3 g). The measured parameters were soil pH, P-total, P-available, P uptake, plant height, shoot dry weight. The research results showed that Talaromyces pinophilus with SP36 25% of the recommended dose improved the efficiency of P fertilizing and the growth of mustard in Andisol affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung.
T. Mathowa, K. Tshipinare, W. Mojeremane, G.M. Legwaila and O. Oagile

Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana.

Key words: Capsicum annum, growing media, seedling emergence, growth and development.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 200-204.

Abstract: This study was carried out at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN) formerly Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) under an 80% net shade to investigate the effect of growing media comprising cocopeat, hygromix and germination mix on growth and development of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) seedlings. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD) with each treatment (growing medium) replicated four times. Growth parameters measured were; seedling emergence, plant height, leaf number and area, and seedling biomasses (both fresh and dry). Seedling emergence from hygromix and germination mix was significantly (P<0.05) higher than cocopeat in the first 15 days whereas a non-significant (P?0.05) treatment response was observed from day 16 to 20 across treatments. Plant height, leaf number and area, and seedling biomasses were significantly (P<0.01) higher in hygromix and germination mix as compared to cocopeat with hygromix revealing superior performance than germination mix. Hygromix and germination mix can be used to propagate sweet pepper because they enhanced seedling emergence, growth and development. Seedlings emerged in cocopeat, but the seedlings remained stunted suggesting that the medium needs further investigation on how it can sustain seedling growth and development.
J.M. Alvarez,,, C. Pasian, R. Lal, R. López and M. Fernández

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Campus La Rábida, Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva, Spain. 2 Horticulture Dept., 202 Kottman Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43210, USA. 3 C-MASC, 422B Kottman Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43210, USA. 4 IRNAS-CSIC, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012, Sevilla, Spain.

Key words: Compost, substrate additive, growing media replacement, carbon storage, Petunia hybrida, Pelargonium peltatum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 205-214.

Abstract: Vermicompost is a product derived from the accelerated biological degradation of organic wastes by earthworms and microorganisms. Biochar is a by-product of the C-negative pyrolysis technology for bio-energy production from organic materials. Containerized plant production in floriculture primarily utilizes substrates such as peat moss. Environmental concerns about draining peat bogs have enhanced interests in research on complementary products that can be added to peat. A comparative greenhouse study was conducted to assess the suitability of biochar (B) and vermicompost (V) as partial substitutes for peat-based growing media for ornamental plant production. Different blends of B at a volume fraction of 0, 4, 8, 12 % and V at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 % were compared to a baseline peat substrate (S) as control in the cultivation of geranium (Pelargonium peltatum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida). Substrates were characterized for physical and chemical properties, plant growth, and flower production. Mixtures with low-medium V levels (10 -30%) and high B level (8-12 %) in Petunia and Pelargonium induced more growth and flower production than that of the control. The results obtained with different B and V associations are of interest to those who want to reduce peat consumption for the production of ornamental plants in containers and to reduce carbon footprint of this commercially productive sector.
Hadora Raghavendra, T.B. Puttaraju, Damodar Varsha and Jodage Krishnaji

Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru - 560 065. 2Department of Botany, Karnataka University Dharwad – 580 003. 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, Raichur- 584 102.

Key words: Capsicum annuum L., Stability, Genotype × Environments, Fruit yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 218-221.

Abstract: Chilli, an important vegetable crop in India, is sensitive to environmental variations and climate change. An investigation was carried out to assess the stability of 25 test hybrids along with three commercial checks across different locations. The results of the study indicated that pooled analysis of variance showed the presence of significant genetic variability among the hybrids for all the characters studied. Variance due to hybrid × environment interaction was non-significant for all the characters except green fruit yield plant-1. Considering all the stability parameters, CMS10A x Byadgikaddi for fruit weight and fruit width, CMS10A × Gouribidanur for green fruit yield plant-1, CMS10A x LCA 206 for red fruit yield plant-1 and CMS8A x Byadgidabbi for number of fruits were exhibited below average stability and these were specifically adopted to unfavorable locations. The test Hybrids, CMS6A × Tiwari for the character average fruit weight, CMS9A × LCA 206 for the character fruit width were well adopted to all environments. CMS10A × Gouribidanur proved to be the best yielding genotype among 25 test hybrids, having higher yield level than the check and were also stable for most of the characters as evident from their non-significant s2di values.
K.S. Jamuna, M.S. Suma, C.K. Ramesh, Riaz Mahmood and L. Nanjundaswamy

Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, PG Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Sahyadri Science College, Kuvempu University, Shimoga - 577203, Karnataka, India. 1Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shimoga 577451, Karnataka, India. 2Academic Staff College, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006.

Key words: Cruciferous vegetables, phytochemicals, anti-proliferative, MTT, Cell lines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 230-234.

Abstract: Cruciferous vegetables have drawn a great deal of attention in cancer research because of their potential protective properties. In the present study, four vegetables viz., cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi and radish were procured and processed for cold extraction procedure using 70% ethanol. The extracts were subjected to the qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimation of glucosinolates content and in vitro antiproliferative activity by MTT assay on MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3 cell lines. The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. Quantitative estimation of glucosinolates in terms of potassium thiocyanate equivalence/5 mg of extract revealed that the cabbage has highest content of glucosinolate (122.6 µg) followed by cauliflower (109 µg), kohlrabi (101.6 µg) and radish (60.2 µg). The four cruciferous vegetables registered notable cell proliferation inhibition at different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL) in a dose dependent manner against three different cell lines. The results of antiproliferative activity was expressed in terms of IC50. Among the four vegetables, cabbage showed considerable cytotoxicity and cell proliferation inhibition with an IC50 value of 192.5, 189.7, 589.7 µg/mL followed by cauliflower (378.7, 398.9, 597.9 µg/mL), kohlrabi (389.5, 396.9, 619.7 µg/ml) and radish (415.4, 423.3, 703.6 µg/ml) in three different cell lines MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3, respectively.. The present study underlines the epidemiological surveys that cruciferous vegetables possess anticancer effects might be due to the presence of glucosinolates augmented with other phytochemicals.

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