Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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K.S. Jamuna, M.S. Suma, C.K. Ramesh, Riaz Mahmood and L. Nanjundaswamy

Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, PG Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Sahyadri Science College, Kuvempu University, Shimoga - 577203, Karnataka, India. 1Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shimoga 577451, Karnataka, India. 2Academic Staff College, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006.

Key words: Cruciferous vegetables, phytochemicals, anti-proliferative, MTT, Cell lines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 230-234.

Abstract: Cruciferous vegetables have drawn a great deal of attention in cancer research because of their potential protective properties. In the present study, four vegetables viz., cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi and radish were procured and processed for cold extraction procedure using 70% ethanol. The extracts were subjected to the qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimation of glucosinolates content and in vitro antiproliferative activity by MTT assay on MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3 cell lines. The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. Quantitative estimation of glucosinolates in terms of potassium thiocyanate equivalence/5 mg of extract revealed that the cabbage has highest content of glucosinolate (122.6 µg) followed by cauliflower (109 µg), kohlrabi (101.6 µg) and radish (60.2 µg). The four cruciferous vegetables registered notable cell proliferation inhibition at different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL) in a dose dependent manner against three different cell lines. The results of antiproliferative activity was expressed in terms of IC50. Among the four vegetables, cabbage showed considerable cytotoxicity and cell proliferation inhibition with an IC50 value of 192.5, 189.7, 589.7 µg/mL followed by cauliflower (378.7, 398.9, 597.9 µg/mL), kohlrabi (389.5, 396.9, 619.7 µg/ml) and radish (415.4, 423.3, 703.6 µg/ml) in three different cell lines MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3, respectively.. The present study underlines the epidemiological surveys that cruciferous vegetables possess anticancer effects might be due to the presence of glucosinolates augmented with other phytochemicals.
M. Janaki, J. Dilip Babu, L. Naram Naidu, C. Venkata Ramana, C.K. Koteswara Rao and K. Uma Krishna

Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., Peddapuram - 533 437, A.P., India. 1Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., V.R. Gudem - 534 101, A.P.. 2HRS, Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., Lam Farm, Guntur - 522 034, A.P., India. 3 ANGRAU, Guntur - 522 034, A.P., India. 4Department of Statistics, COH, Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., V.R. Gudem - 534 101 (A. P.), India.

Key words: Chilli, Capsicum annuum, Combining ability, bio chemical, trait, additive

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 235-240.

Abstract: Fifty four F1 hybrids were developed in chilli using Line x Tester mating design with nine lines and six testers at Horticultural Research Station, Lam farm, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh during kharif. Estimates of combining ability effects were calculated for seven biochemical traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the parents, crosses and parents vs. hybrids for all the traits studied indicating that the existence of wide variability among the material studied. All the characters exhibited low gca to sca ratio indicated predominance of non-additive gene action in inheritance of all traits studied and improvement can be made through heterosis breeding. Among the parents, the lines LCA 504, LCA 446, LCA 466, LCA 654 and LCA 355 and the testers G4, LCA 678, LCA 453 and LCA 705-2 were found to be good general combiners and among the 54 hybrids, the hybrids LCA 504 x LCA 678, LCA 615 x G4, LCA 655 x LCA 315, LCA 355 x LCA 678, LCA 504 x G4, LCA 504 x LCA 453 and LCA 607 x LCA 703-2 were found to be promising hybrids as they exhibited significant gca and sca effects in desirable direction for most of the quality traits. The resulted promising hybrids may be further tested over locations or seasons and recommended for commercial release and identified good general combiners could be utilized in future chilli breeding programmes.
Muhammad Munir and Mohammed Refdan Alhajhoj

Frontier Agriculture, SOYL Precision Crop Production Division, Newbury, United Kingdom. 2College of Agriculture Sciences and Food, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Key words:

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 241-244.

Abstract: To control plant height of obligate long day plants, two trials were conducted, that is the use of plant growth retardants (A-Rest, Bonzi, and Cycocel), excluding control and exposure of plants to light for specific time (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks). Results indicated that plant height was significantly reduced by all plant growth retardants. Similarly, plants transferred to a short day (SD) light chamber for 2 weeks produced more or less similar plant height when compared to plant growth retardants. The study suggested that for taller plants production the duration can be prolonged up to 8 weeks. The use of light to control plant height is non-toxic and eco-friendlyObligate long day, herbaceous annuals, plant height control, plant growth regulators, light
K.S. Nitin, A.K. Chakravarthy and V. Sridhar

ICAR- Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru-560089, Karnataka, India.

Key words: Bioassay, Phaseolus vulgaris, host range, Tuta absoluta

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 253-254.

Abstract: In India, South American tomato moth, Tuta absoluta has been recorded infesting plants of solanaceae family in 2014. Larvae of T. absoluta were observed feeding on French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris during October 2016 in Bengaluru, India. Olfactometer bioassays revealed T. absoluta preferred P. vulgaris leaves when tomato leaves are significantly damaged by the pest. In choice test, with healthy tomato leaf versus healthy bean leaf, all larvae significantly preferred tomato leaf (P<0.0001). However when T. absoluta larvae and adults were offered with damaged tomato leaf and healthy bean leaf, the female adult and larvae significantly preferred bean leaf (P<0.02 and 0.04, respectively). This study revealed that T. absoluta is expanding its host range in India. With the expansion of T. absoluta damage to other than solanaceae, there is a need for constant monitoring of the pest in other crops also, particularly from Fabaceae family.
A. Bhattacharya, B.V. Palan, K. Mali and B. Char

Mahyco Research Centre, Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Private Limited, Dawalwadi, Jalna- Aurangabad Road, Jalna 431203, Maharashtra.

Key words: Cauliflower, anther culture, double haploid, embryogenic callus, MS (Murashige and Skoog) media, plantlet regeneration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 101-105.

Abstract: A study was conducted to augment a viable protocol for the development of double haploid system in cauliflower, using in-house genotypes, by anther culture. A total of 13,680 anthers were cultured on different media combinations across nine genotypes. Genotype-to-(segregating) genotype variations in anther culture to plant regeneration were observed, chiefly, segregating genotype-9, had highest frequency of regeneration (26.43%) whereas, segregating genotype-2, had the lowest frequency (0.2%). Two segregating genotypes remained unresponsive. Anther cultured on modified media showed highest embryogenic callus induction potential as compared to other media compositions. Regeneration media, RM1 and RM2, showed good differentiation and regeneration potential. In total, 711 haploid / double haploid plants were developed across seven genotypes, with an average regeneration efficiency of 7.6%. This simple protocol reported here, can be used for DH line development in cauliflower, through anther culture, resulting in embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration. Further, protocol developed and discussed in the paper, will help to exploit DH technology in cauliflower for rapid inbred line development, and to speed-up cauliflower breeding for faster cultivar and better hybrid development.
S.F. El-Sharabasy, H.S. Ghazzawy, and M. Munir

Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt. 2Date Palm Research Center of Excellence, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., explant sterilization, disinfectants, silver nanoparticles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 106-112.

Abstract: The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1) alone and in combination with commonly used disinfectants (80% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% mercuric chloride) on in vitro grown explants of date palm cv. Barhee. Seventeen treatment combinations were made to study the survival, contamination and mortality percentage of in vitro grown date palm explants. The laboratory experiment was laid out on completely randomized design with three replicates in each treatment. The findings revealed that application of 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with 80% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% mercuric chloride statistically behaved alike. However, maximum survival of explants (88.89%) and zero percent mortality was observed when 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles was used alone. Higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles (10 and 20 mg L-1) when combined with sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride had a detrimental effect and caused highest explant mortality. Application of sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride showed 33.33% contamination and 11.11% explant mortality. It is therefore, concluded to use 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles alone for explant sterilization of date palm cv. Barhee, which is non-hazardous and environment friendly.
W. Mojeremane, M. Chilume and T. Mathowa

Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Key words: Organic fertilizer, parsley, growth and development parameters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 113-118.

Abstract: Growth and development response of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) to four application rates of organic fertilizers (treatments) was investigated in a field experiment at the Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (formerly Botswana College of Agriculture) from November 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomised block design (RCBD) with each of the four treatments; 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 kg m-2 replicated three times. Data on growth and development parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and plant canopy (spread) was recorded at weekly intervals whereas, stem diameter (thickness), and shoots fresh and dry weights were recorded at the termination of the experiment. In general, significant statistical differences (P<0.05) were revealed for plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, stem thickness, canopy diameter and shoots fresh and dry weights. Application rates of organic fertilizers of 10 kg m-2 significantly enhanced the performance of the growth and development parameters of parsley with highest application rate revealing numerical superiority. Based on the findings, highest application rate of organic fertilizer is recommended to small scale farmers because its constituents are readily available and in abundance locally.
W.C. Bartz, T.A. Evans, C.A. Murphy and W.G. Pill

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717, USA.

Key words: Scotch bonnet pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacq., solution fertilization, liquid feed, fertilizer analysis, fertilizer ratio, potassium rate, pruning, Dutch V pruning, Spanish pruning, greenhouse production.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 119-124.

Abstract: Two initial studies were conducted to determine the potential for greenhouse production of Scotch bonnet pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). When these peppers are grown outdoors in Jamaica, fruit yield declines over time owing to increasing infections with several aphid-vectored viral pathogens. Production of Scotch bonnet peppers in greenhouses with insect-excluding screens covering the side- and end-walls would render the plants virus-free and would extend the harvest season which is limited by damaging rainfall during the wet season. We found in Delaware, USA (39.68° N) that fruit yields from greenhouse-grown plants were far greater than those expected from field-grown plants in Jamaica. Greater fruit number and weight of marketable fruits per plant were achieved from non-pruned plants compared to those from plants pruned to either of two Dutch V systems [plants pruned to two main stems and subsequent laterals pruned to one (V1) or to three (V3) nodes]. These differences were less pronounced when fruit yield was expressed on a per m-2 basis since pruned plants were closer together (1.8 plans m-2) than non-pruned plants (1.1 plants m-2). Low-K fertilizer (21N-2.2P-16.6K) compared to high-K fertilizer (15N-2.2P-20.8K) resulted in a 75% early-season and an 8% full-season increase in marketable fruit fresh weight·m-2 in non-pruned plants.
A.R. Bonyanpour, G.R. Moafpourian and B. Jamali

Horticulture Crops Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Alternate bearing, fruit quality, micronutrients, olea europaea, soil application

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 125-129.

Abstract: Present study was carried out to evaluate impact of micronutrients application (manganese, iron and zinc) with different methods (foliar or soil application) on quality parameters of ‘Belidi’ olive in Fars province. Chelated iron sequestrene 138, zinc and manganese sulfates were soil applied once a year and iron, zinc and manganese sulfate were foliar applied on plants, three times a year, alone or in combination. Results indicated that fertilizer application method did not have significant impact on tree productivity and fruit quality parameters in bearing or non-bearing years and alternate bearing in ‘Belidi’ olive trees was not correlated significantly with manganese, iron and zinc deficiency. It seems that foliar application of micronutrients fertilizers in regions with alkaline soils is a better strategy for improvement of olive production.
T.P. Tantasawat, A. Khairum, A. Tharapreuksapong, O. Poolsawat and P.A. Tantasawat

Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand. 1School of Crop Production Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.

Key words: Dendrobium ‘Earsakul’, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), mutagenesis, Phytophthora palmivora, sodium azide (NaN3)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 130-134.

Abstract: In vitro chemical mutagenesis of Dendrobium ‘Earsakul’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) followed by in vitro selection with Phytophthora palmivora culture filtrate (CF) generated several putative mutants potentially resistant to black rot. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the black rot resistance levels of these putative mutants, to estimate the genetic variability among them and non-mutagenized controls using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and to identify candidate markers with significant associations to black rot resistance. When 3 non-mutagenized control lines and 8 putative mutants, derived from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutation, followed by in vitro selection were evaluated for black rot resistance using detached leaf assay with a virulent isolate NK-53-9, it was found that all controls were susceptible to black rot, but the resistance levels of putative mutants varied. Four of eight putative mutants were moderately resistant or resistant to the disease, suggesting their usefulness in the breeding program. ISSR analysis of these controls and putative mutants with 7 ISSR primers yielded 7 to 29 reproducible bands per primer, ranging in size from 170 to 2100 bp. A total of 114 amplified ISSR fragments were obtained, 53 of which were polymorphic (46.5%). All controls have the same DNA patterns, while all 8 putative mutants showed altered genetic profiles compared to controls and were identified as mutants. The mutant SUT13E18-A appears to have distinct genetic profile compared to others as well as high level of resistance to black rot. Moreover, five ISSR markers significantly associated with black rot resistance were identified. These results suggest that ISSR analysis is efficient for mutant identification and characterization, and in vitro chemical mutagenesis followed by in vitro selection with P. palmivora CF provides a useful tool for future improvement of black rot resistant Dendrobium.
Basudeb Dasgupta and Solanki Sarkar

Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, 741252, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Crop canopy, betelvine, Phytophthora parasitica, Colletotrichum capsici

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 135-138.

Abstract: Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is a perennial dioecious creeper-belonging to the family Piperaceae usually grown under artificially erected structurals known as baroj that provides high moist and humid conditions favouring several diseases that in turn are major deterrents to good harvest. Betelvine suffers from many root and aerial diseases of which leaf rot caused by Phytophthora parasitica (Dastur) and leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum capsici Syd. (Butler and Bisby) are most important and are included in these studies for assessment. The extent of losses may vary from 20-40% for leaf rot and 10-20% for leaf spot, leading to almost total crop failure (Dasgupta and Sen, 1999). As the betel leaf is directly chewed immediately after harvest, it is not feasible to apply any pesticides that may cause toxic hazards to human being. An experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study the effect of different crop canopy by maintaining three different plant to plant spacing (viz., 11.1, 9.53 and 8.3 cm.) on leaf yield, disease incidence and keeping quality (days to 50% rotting) of betelvine. With the above plant to plant spacing and standard row to row spacing (60cm), the plant population was maintained as 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00 lakh ha-1. The results revealed that when crop canopy was increased by reducing the plant to plant spacing from 11.1 cm to 8.3 cm there were significant increases in both the diseases under investigation (rot disease 19.76 to 22.30%; leaf spot disease 22.68 to 25.42%). Significant increase in yield (26.29 to 33.63 lakh ha-1year -1), decrease in fresh weight of 100 leaves (460.85 to 432.35g) and decrease in keeping quality of leaves (13.14 days to 10.28 days) were recorded when crop canopy was increased by reduction in plant to plant spacing from 11.1 cm to 8.3 cm. From these results it can be concluded that shifts in microclimate resulting from increase in canopy by reducing the plant spacing aggravated the spread and infection of disease.
C. Parya

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia.

Key words: Integrated nutrient management, Gerbera jamesonii, poly hosuse, flower production, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 139-142.

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Entisol soil at Horticulture Research Station, BCKV, Nadia to study the response of integrated plant nutrient supply system on gerbera under poly house condition. Different combinations of chemical fertilizer (100, 75 and 50% RDF), organic manure (FYM and vermicompost) and bio-fertilizer (Azoztobacter and PSB) were evaluated in Randomized Block Design. Healthy disease free tissue culture gerbera plants with uniform growth were planted in the bed of a size 10 x 1 m with a spacing of 50 x 50 cm. The growth attributes, flowering characteristics, flowering quality (stalk length and flower size) was improved under the treatment receiving 75% RDF along with FYM, vermicompost and Azotobacter + PSB. The maximum numbers of flower with longest shelf life in field condition and vase life in room condition can be harvested with combined application of 75% RDF, FYM, vermicompost along with or without Azotobacter + PSB. The bio-fertilizer had significant role in flower quality improvement.
Manoj Kundu and Anil Dubey

Department of Horticulture (Fruit and Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India- 813210. 2Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India- 110012.

Key words: Citrus, irradiation, fruit size, fruit volume, fruit weight, gamma-ray.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 143-146.

Abstract: Citrus is one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world, greatly valued as table fruit as well as in the processing industry. Among the different citrus fruits, pummelo plays a major role in the processing industry. However, the presence of a large number of seeds in pummelo greatly hinders processing quality. Therefore, induction of seedlessness in pummelo is one of the major goals around the world. Currently, irradiated pollen technique emerges as a novel tool for induction of seedlessness in any fruit. However, reduction of fruit size is a great concern in irradiated pollen technique. Hence, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma ray irradiated pollen technique on fruit growth in citrus using pummelo (C. grandis (L.) Osb.) as seed parent while sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) cv. ‘Mosambi’ and sweet lemon (C. limetta Risso) as pollen sources. Irradiation of pollen grains was performed at 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gray (Gy) by using 60Co gamma ray and the experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with 5 replications. With the increased doses of irradiation, fruit growth in terms of length, diameter, weight and volume differed significantly throughout the period of observation starting from 35 days after pollination to till maturity. At maturity, maximum fruit length (387.70 mm), weight (590.27 g) and volume (885.27 cc) were recorded in C. grandis × C. limetta crosses at control while minimum fruit length (129.74 mm) and weight (211.54 g) were observed in C. grandis × C. sinensis crosses at 300 Gy. There was no fruit retention till maturity in either cross combination at 400 Gy. Among two different cross combinations, with the increased dose of irradiation, the rate of reduction in fruit growth in terms of length and weight as compared to respective control was much higher in C. grandis × C. sinensis crosses. However, for the production of marketable size fruits (not more than 300 g), irradiation of either pollen parent at 200-300 Gy was found to be the best while, doses below 200 Gy caused the production of fruits weighing more than 400 g, which do not have good market value.
A. Daryanto, M. Syukur, P. Hidayat, and A. Maharijaya

Agrotechnology, Gunadarma University Jl. Margonda Raya No 100, Depok, Indonesia 16424. 2Department of Agronomy and Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Jl. Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680. 3Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Jl. Kamper, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680. 4Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies, Jl. Raya Pajajaran, Bogor, Indonesia 16144.

Key words: Capsicum annuum, choice test, cotton aphid, host-plant resistance, no-choice test

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 147-151.

Abstract: The melon aphid or cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) is one of the major pests of pepper. Chemical based crop protection is the major way to control aphid until now. The use of resistant varieties may help to reduce the use of insecticides, together with Integrated Pest Management. The objective of this research was to identify the antixenosis and antibiosis based resistance of melon aphids in several pepper genotypes that may be explored as sources of resistance in aphid resistance breeding program of pepper. We used choice and no-choice test, and detached leaf based experiments. Antixenosis based resistance was detected as shown by significant number of aphid per leaf, total aphid per plant, and total winged aphid per plant. Antibiosis based resistance was also detected as shown by significant difference in longevity time, reproduction time, number of aphid progeny per day, and the fecundity of the melon aphid among genotypes.
Jarongsak Pumnuan, Lampan Khurnpoon and Ammorn Insung

Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand.

Key words: Pytotoxicity, methyl bromide, fumigation, clove, lemon grass

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 152-158.

Abstract: This study examined fumigation toxicity of 18 medicinal plant essential oils (EOs) against adult of aphid (Aphid gossypii) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Then, non-target effects of the EO mixtures on physiological changes of eggplant (Solanum melongena) were tested. The insecticidal property and physiological toxicity of the fumigation formulas were also examined and compared to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation. The results showed that the eggplant fumigated with clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) EOs mixture at the ratio of 1:3 (Cl1Le3) showed no significant physiological changes when compared to the control treatment. The formula resulted in similarly high mortalities (82-100%) of both insects when compared to MB. However, MB fumigation caused complete senescence appeared before day 3 observations. On the contrary, the eggplant fumigated with Cl1Le3 at 3 µL/L air showed no differences in the physiological changes when compared to the control throughout the 9-day examinations.

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