Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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S. Bartolini, C. Iacona, D. Remorini and R. Viti

Scuola Superiore Sant Anna, Institute of Life Science, Pisa, Italy. Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Key words: Prunus armeniaca L., dormancy, xylogenesis, flowering, fruiting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 171-177.

Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the involvement of weather conditions and the influence of two Prunus rootstocks (Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling) on flower bud biology of Pisana (Prunus armeniaca L.), one of the most appreciated Italian apricot cultivar, grown in a Mediterranean agro-climatic environment. Anatomical investigations on xylem differentiation within flower buds and biological observations on flowering as well as fruiting were carried out over two consecutive growth seasons. These years were characterized by different weather conditions due to temperatures and rainfall events which influenced the chilling accumulation, blooming time and xylogenesis process. The onset of xylogenesis within flower buds was conditioned by summer temperatures and water availability. The two rootstocks commonly used in apricot, Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling, did not affect the flowering and fruit-set rate of the grafted cultivar. Nevertheless, differences in progressive differentiation of the secondary thickness of procambial cells in xylem vessels were observed.
M. Olszewski, B. Snyder and J. Pils

Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture, Temple University, 580 Meetinghouse Rd., Ambler, PA 19002. Director of Research and Development, Aquatrols Corporation, Paulsboro, NJ 08066.

Key words: Growing media, wetting agent, hydrophobicity, peat, bark, mix manufacturers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 178-182.

Abstract: Surfactant formulations consisting of proprietary blends containing sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend (ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P); sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend with polyethylene glycol addition (ACA3204-2a), and ethoxylated alkylphenol (ACA160) were tested for wettability of peat-based substrates and for relative phytotoxicity. Substrate incorporation rates used in this study were 116 mL m-3 (a low recommended rate), 232 ml m-3 (a moderate recommended rate), and 464 ml m-3 (a supra-optimal rate). After a third wetting cycle, those substrates incorporated with ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, or ACA160 at 232 ml m-3 had higher wettability ratings than the Pro-Mix HP control (Premier Horticulture Inc., Quakertown, PA). There were no differences in shoot dry weight (SDW) or visual root health rating (VRHR) among treatment groups of impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) compared to the control For pansy (Viola wittrockiana), Pro-Mix-HP control-grown plants had higher SDW (0.8632 g shoot-1) than ACA3204-R at 464 mLm-3 (SDW = 0.6266 g shoot-1) but SDWs for ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a and ACA160 were similar to the control at all rates. Compared to the control, pansy VRHRs declined at 464 ml m-3 for all surfactants except for ACA160. In general, higher rates of surfactant increased mean days to 50% germination (DX; an inverse measure of germination rate) compared to distilled water control for pansy but this effect was less pronounced for impatiens. There appeared to be a stimulatory seedling effect on mean pansy root length for ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P (rates = 300-1200 ppm) and for ACA3204-2a (rates = 600-1200 ppm). In conclusion, surfactant formulations ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a, and ACA160 were comparatively non-phytotoxic at moderate rates of substrate incorporation (mature plant growth) but laboratory seed germination was affected by low concentrations. ACA3204-R had similar wettability rating to that of ACA160 following the third wetting cycle. Further testing with additional plant species and substrates would aide in evaluating the usefulness of newer horticultural surfactants.
J. Dolezalova, M. Koudela, L. Augustinova and M. Dubsk

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Pr?honice, Czech Republic.

Key words: Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L., seedling, growth, water deficit, brassinolide, vegetable, stimulant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 183-186.

Abstract: Water deficit is one of the most adverse factors for plant growth and productivity. The experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of synthetic brassinolide analogue at concentrations 100 nmol.L-1 , 1 nmol.L-1 , 0.01 nmol.L-1 and 0 nmol.L-1 on lettce seedling grown at two moisture levels (reduced, control). The plants were cultivated in growth chamber under day / night temperature of 20 oC/15 oC. The total quantities of irrigation water during the experiment: reduced - 28 mm; control - 39 mm. The seedlings of two butter head lettuce cultivars (cv. Mars and cv. Marsalus) were sprayed to foliage at juvenile stage of growth. The plant parameters (length, fresh weight of shoots and roots) and dry matter content were measured on 21st and 28th day after sowing. Significantly higher values of the average fresh weight and length of aboveground part and roots were measured on 28th day for the cultivar Marsalus treated with brassinosteroide analogue at concentration 1 nmol.L-1 in conditions with reduced irrigation. The results showed that treatment of plants in the initial stage of the development with 1 nmol.L-1 solution can be used to limit the consequences of reduced moisture conditions. Prior to use the most effective concentration should be taken into account which parameter of plant is expected to be changed and also the varying sensitivity of the cultivars to the treatment.
Kirath Singh, Gyanalok Das, Kundansingh R Jadhao, Gyana Ranjan Rout

Department of Agril. Biotechnology,College of Agriculture, AICRP Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 3, Odisha,

Key words: Piper spp, Piperaceae, HPTLC analysis, Piperine content, ISSR marker, genetic diversity analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 187-194.

Abstract: Phytochemical and molecular characterization of Piper species was investigated. There was a wide variation of the active compounds present in leaf and fruits of different Piper species/accessions. Among the two active compounds, piperine-1 content was more in P. chaba fruit and Piperine -2 in P. nigrum fruit as compared with other species. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker was also used to analyze the genetic variation between the species / accession of Piper species. The phylogenetic analysis generated by ISSR marker was divided into two major groups with 47% similarity. First major group is only one species (i.e. Piper spp. Accession -1) and also morphologically distinct from other seven species. The second groups are divided into two minor groups. Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga are grouped together with 100 % similarity at genetic level, whereas, Piper betle var. Utkal Sudhama having 97 % similarity with Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga. Both phytochemical and molecular marker was showed significant variation among and between species/accessions. This study will help for the breeding program in Piper .
Ustun Sahin, Yasemin Kuslu, Fatih M. Kiziloglu and Talip Cakmakci

Ataturk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. Yuzuncu Y?l University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, 65080, Van, Turkey.

Key words: Antioxidant activity, marketable yield, mineral content, total phenolics, water productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 195-202.

Abstract: Water stress under reduced irrigation conditions affect plant physiology and hence yield and crop quality. Moreover, high altitude climatic conditions can significantly influence plant physiology. Therefore, a two year field study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation quantities on plant growth (leaf number, stem diameter, plant diameter and height), marketable yield, water use and crop quality attributes (mineral content, total phenolics and antioxidant activity) of drip-irrigated lettuce in a semi-arid region with a high altitude. A randomized complete block design was used for testing of different irrigation quantities replicated three times. Different irrigation quantities were adjusted considering 100 (I1), 85 (I2) and 70% (I3) of evaporated water from a Class A pan. Lettuce evapotranspiration was the highest in the I1 treatment (214.1 mm) considering the two year average values. Therefore, the I1 treatment provided the maximum growth and marketable yield (2.17 kg m-2). Water use efficiency was also the highest in the I1 treatment (10.2 kg m-3) because the lettuce yield decreased significantly with the decreasing irrigation quantity. However, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in lettuce leaves were the highest in the I3 treatment. Moreover, I2 and I3 treatments provided higher mineral contents. While the potassium content in leaves was the most abundant among macro minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Na), manganese content was the highest among micro minerals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and B). It could be said that lettuce can be irrigated with less irrigation quantities for obtaining higher mineral contents, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. This application can also provide water saving but cannot induce water productivity.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Christiane de Savigny

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1

Key words: Fruit composition, soil texture, GPS, GIS, precision viticulture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 100-122.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that soil texture would play a minor role in the determination of yield components, fruit composition, and wine sensory attributes of Chardonnay (i.e. the terroir effect), and that vine size, crop size and associated fruit environment would play the major roles. Five Chardonnay vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, Canada were chosen for study. These vineyards were located on sites with heterogeneous soil types to allow study of the impact upon yield, fruit composition and wine sensory attributes of: 1. Soil texture with mesoclimate kept constant; 2. The comparative magnitude of effects of soil texture and vine vigor. Vineyard blocks were delineated using global positioning systems (GPS), and a series of 72 to 162 data vines per site were geo-located within a sampling grid imposed on each vineyard block. Data were collected on soil texture, soil composition, tissue elemental composition, vine performance (yield components and weight of cane prunings), and fruit composition. These variables were mapped using geographical information systems (GIS) software and relationships between them were elucidated. Soil texture and composition were occasionally correlated to yield components and fruit composition but often these relationships were site-specific. Spatial relationships were common between % sand and clay, vine size, yield, berry weight, soluble solids (Brix), and titratable acidity (TA); however, relationships were both vineyard and vintage dependent. Several spatial relationships were apparent as well between vine size, yield, Brix, TA, and various soil/petiole composition variables, including organic matter, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil/petiole N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and B. Spatial relationships between yield, berry weight, berry composition, vine size, and several soil physical variables suggest a likely soil basis to the so-called 'terroir effect'. Vine size, yield, and berry weight were stable temporally within individual vineyards despite differences in annual climatic conditions. Soil texture (% sand) was frequently associated with high vine size, yield, and berry weight. Vine size directly correlated with berry weight. TA was often correlated with vine size. Soil composition had little relationship to petiole composition, fruit composition or yield except in a few specific cases, e.g., between pH and soil K.
Yanbin Hua, Baotong Yang, Xin-Gen Zhou, Jun Zhao and Liulin Li

College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University System, Bea

Key words: Fruit bagging, overrunning clutch, self-locking, paper bag with rubber bands and plastic rings

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 123-127.

Abstract: Bagging fruit on the trees in the orchard is a challenge to the fruit industry in China and many other countries due to the heavy labor requirement and low efficiency of the current fruit bagging methods. In this study, we developed a novel semi-automatic apparatus for bagging fruits to overcome these disadvantages. This apparatus adopts a mechanism similar to 'overrunning clutch' using the self-locking principle between nut and bolt to achieve the paper bags being progressively delivered by a screwed pipe and slid out individually. Such apparatus is of simplicity in design and efficiency in operation with a low cost. It does not require a battery or any of other sources of power to complete the process. This article describes the design and operation procedure of this apparatus in details. To our knowledge, this is the first apparatus to complete the fruit bagging process using the paper bags with rubber bands and plastic rings based on the new mechanism of operation.
N. Bumgarner and J. Buck

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, 37996. Formerly of Hort Americas, LLC, Euless, TX, USA.

Key words: Hydroponic, protected culture, light emitting diode, metal halide, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, greenhouse, high intensity discharge lighting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 128-134.

Abstract: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most common vegetable crops produced in greenhouses in the United States. Yet, it is difficult to maintain consistent production cycles in many areas due to seasonal variation in ambient light. This presents a challenge to profitability, so, many growers utilize supplemental lighting to provide more consistent production in greenhouse leafy crop operations. Research has frequently been carried out to investigate the relationships between light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouse lettuce crops to optimize production and profitability. Much of this work has been carried out using high intensity discharge lights (HID), specifically high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Currently, growers are considering whether light emitting diode (LED) technology can augment or replace HID lighting for greenhouse-grown vegetables. To improve knowledge in this area, this study evaluated LED and MH lighting in Bibb lettuce crop in the Midwestern United States during low light seasons in 2014. Three lighting treatments were compared: 1) a naturally lighted control, 2) supplemental MH lighting, and 3) supplemental LED lighting. Three sequential runs comparing the three lighting treatments were carried out between January and April of 2014. At the conclusion of each run, fresh shoot weight for all plants was measured along with a chlorophyll content index and a subjective tipburn rating. Supplemental lighting increased biomass over naturally-lighted controls by 194%, 104%, and 39% in MH and 253%, 165%, and 55% in LED in runs one, two, and three, respectively across the two cultivars. Differences in the chlorophyll content index and tipburn rating were also observed in lettuce under both supplemental lighting treatments when compared to the naturally lighted control. This study illustrates that supplemental lighting can improve greenhouse lettuce yield during low light seasons, but suggests growers implementing supplemental lighting should carefully monitor and manage crop quality.
R. Khajehyar, E. Fallahi and M. Rahemi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University of Idaho Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA.

Key words: Jasmonic acid, polyamines, chilling injury, citrus, cold storage.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 135-137.

Abstract: Chilling injury is one of the most important problems of tropical and subtropical fruits during storage that can occur if the temperature falls below 5 oC. Polyamines and methyl jasmonate (MJ) are believed to prevent and inhibit chilling injury (CI) during storage. In order to find a suitable treatment to reduce CI of oranges (Citrus sinensis) during cold storage, a research was conducted with two concentrations of MJ and two concentrations of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) (1 and 1.5 mgL-1), applied as pre-storage treatments and fruits were stored at 2 oC for 1.5 months. Application of MJ and PAs reduced percentages of CI, decay, pitting, physiological decay (PHD), ion leakage, potassium leakage, and weight loss (WL) and firmness in the fruit as compared to control after the storage period. Put at 1 mgL-1 had significantly lower percentage ion leakage and pH although CI in this treatment was similar to other treatments. Fruit juice density was not affected by any of the treatments.
Abdul J. Cheruth, Khadija I.M. Ramadhan and Shyam S. Kurup

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Key words: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), salinity, morphology, pigments, physiology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 138-140.

Abstract: Salinity represents an increasing threat to agricultural production in every region of the world. The objective of this investigation was to determine ameliorative effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on salt stressed lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in terms of growth, pigments and biochemical contents. The treatments were divided into 4 sections: control, 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl +5mM CaCl2 and 5mM CaCl2 alone. NaCl and CaCl2 stress decreased lettuce plant root and stem length, number of leaves and fresh weight versus the control. NaCl combined with CaCl2 increased these parameters versus treatments with NaCl or CaCl2 alone. Salt stress reduced the shoot and root fresh weight. The roots showed slightly increased growth under salinity, but after the treatment with CaCl2 the plants were normal. The pigment chlorophyll showed a diminishing trend in NaCl stressed plants, but it increased with CaCl2 application. The chlorophyll content increased in all plants with age. There was a slight decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents with NaCl treated plants. CaCl2 also showed decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, but it was still higher than that of NaCl treated plants. Proline and phenol contents increased in lettuce plants under treatment with NaCl and CaCl2 when compared to the control. From these results, it can be concluded that the addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed lettuce plants have a significant role in partial alleviation of salinity stress. Our results indicated that the cultivation of vegetable plants like lettuce in saline areas would be possible with supplemental calcium application.
M.A. Hegazi and M.M.S. Metwaly

Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-sheikh University, 33516, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Seashore Paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum, late season nutrition, cold wear.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 141-147.

Abstract: The present research was conducted on Kafer El-Sheikh University garden turfgrass during the winter season (November-May) of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the possibility of improving cold tolerance of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turfgrass during late season through either nutrition by compost alone or in combination with foliar application of potassium, silicon, iron or calcium separately. Compost was applied to all area except control on 1st November of each season at 10m3/feddan (2.38kg/m2). Aqueous solutions containing the recommended dose of each element plus 0.1% Tween 20 as a wetting agent were sprayed on the above ground parts until runoff, twice a month. The results showed that compost and Fe combination followed by compost and K2SO4 recorded the best results for most growth and anatomical measurements. The least growth values were observed from the compost alone or in combination with silicon and control treatments.
V. Srilatha, Y.T.N. Reddy, K.K. Upreti, R. Venugopalan and H.L. Jayaram

Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaragatta Lake post, Bangalore- 560 089.

Key words: Mango, pruning, paclobutrazol, vigour, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flowering

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 148-153.

Abstract: Dominant vegetative phase, if not regulated, can adversely affect the mango production particularly under high density planting systems. Pruning after fruit harvest and use of paclobutrazol (PBZ) have been identified as common strategies for tree vigour regulation and productivity enhancement in mango. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of 50% pruning of current and previous season vegetative growth and PBZ (3 mL/ m canopy diameter) on tree vigour, flowering and phenol contents in three mango cvs. Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali. Suppression of plant height, tree girth, canopy spread, shoot length and girth was witnessed with PBZ application in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth and unpruned trees. Early flowering witnessed as a result of PBZ application led to advanced fruit harvest by 20.4, 13.0 and 14.7 days in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth and 18.7, 13.7 and 15 days in trees pruned to 50% previous season growth in the cvs Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali, respectively. Drastic increase in total phenols, total flavonoids and phenolic acid contents were observed at 75 days after PBZ application in PBZ treated unpruned trees and in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by in trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth. The high levels of o-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and salicylic acid and low levels of caffeic acid and t-cinnamic acid were observed following PBZ application in tree pruned to 50% of current season growth and unpruned trees compared to control. From the study it was apparent that the pruning of trees to 50% of current season growth and PBZ application are vital for regulating tree size, early flowering and advancing fruit harvest in mango and such beneficial effects of treatments were mediated through increases in phenols and flavonoids contents.
D. Sulistyowati, M.A. Chozin, M. Syukur, M. Melati and D. Guntoro

Agronomy and Horticulture Study Program, Post Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and Bogor Agricultural Extension Institute (STPP Bogor). Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor, Indonesia.

Key words: Cluster analysis, euclidean distance, principal component analysis, relative productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 154-159.

Abstract: Tomato genotypes exibit different shade intolerance and shade-tolerant tomatoes have potential for vegetable-agroforestry system. To obtain shade-tolerant tomatoes, a study on several tomato traits were evaluated on their morphological and physiological characteristics and their yield as responses to low light intensity. This experiment was conducted at farmers field, Bogor (October 2014-February 2015) using nested factorial design with three replications. Study was conducted on 50 tomato genotypes cultivated under 50 and 100% light intensity. Variables observed were: leaf number and area, flower number, fruit number, fruit weight and production, flowering and harvesting time. The tolerance levels of tested genotypes were classified based on plant relative productivity rate. Analysis of variance was used to differentiate between genotypes within response group; principal component analysis to define variance characters between genotypes; and cluster analysis using Euclidean distance method to determine relationship among tomato genotypes and similarity level . The 50 genotypes under shading condition were classified into 5 shade-loving genotypes, 16 shade-tolerant genotypes, 15 shade-moderately-tolerant genotypes and 14 shade-sensitive genotypes. First two principal components explained 57.19% variation. The first principal component was plant production and reproduction with the value of 37.69%; and the second one was plant morphological characters with the value of 19.50%. The dendrogram from cluster analysis separated 50 genotypes to 3 clusters with a distance of 20. There were 7 genotypes in the first cluster, 11 genotypes in the second cluster; and 32 genotypes in the third cluster.
Gurlabh S. Brar, M.I.S. Gill, N.K. Arora and H.S. Dhaliwal

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (141001) Punjab, India.

Key words: Grapes, Cardinal, Punjab Purple (H-516), Merlot, fruiting behaviour.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 160-163.

Abstract: Grape vines, trained on Y-trellis system were evaluated for their fruiting behaviour during the fruiting season of 2011-12 in Punjab conditions (North India). The maximum number of bunches per vine were recorded in variety Punjab Purple (H-516) and the maximum berries per bunch were recorded in variety Chardonnay. While, the variety Cardinal was promising in other berry characteristics such as berry weight, length, breadth and firmness, juice recovery was higher in variety Merlot. Varieties Himrod, Punjab Purple (H-516) and Pusa Navrang performed better as compared to other varieties with respect to physico- chemical parameters. Based on the overall performance, variety Punjab Purple (H-516) was found to be the most promising under North Indian conditions.
Ashok Kumar Bishoyi, Aarti Kavane, Anjali Sharma and K.A. Geetha

PDPIAS, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand, Gujarat, India. ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research, Boriavi, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Key words: CTAB, DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, ISSR, SSR, barcode, gene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 164-168.

Abstract: Extraction of DNA from medicinal and aromatic plants is often problematic, since these plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites which interfere with PCR based downstream applications and restriction digestions. Removal of these secondary metabolites requires appropriate reagents for DNA isolation. This investigation optimised an efficient DNA isolation protocol for Cymbopogon species that yielded sufficient quantity of DNA and could be used for diverse molecular applications. The modified protocol was also compared with the two existing DNA extraction procedures for cost effectiveness, time efficiency and quality DNA recovery. The modified protocol yields good amount of DNA ranging from 76 to 90 g/ g of fresh tissues which was significantly higher in comparison to the other two protocols. A260/A280 ratio of the DNA obtained from the modified method ranged from 1.81 to 1.87 indicates purity of DNA and was also found to be suited for downstream applications such as restriction digestions. Subsequent RAPD, ISSR, SSR and barcode gene amplification analysis suggested that the DNA isolated by our modified method was suitable for various molecular research applications. The efficiency of this method in terms of lesser time requirement and cost effectiveness makes the present method a noticeable alternative for total cellular DNA extraction for Cymbopogon species and could be adoptable by the developing countries across the world.

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