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Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Key words: Land suitability, land availability, multi-criteria decision-making, spatial overlay, SPOT-6 imagery

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 87-99.

Abstract: In Indonesia, Java Island still contributes a large amount of the total number of vegetables produced. In this tropical country, vegetables are produced in two different agro-ecological conditions, which are high altitude and low altitude. The rapidly increasing population growth has caused the centre's production of high altitude vegetables on Java Island to be increasingly pressured by other types of land utilization. This study was conducted in one of the production centres of tropical high altitude vegetable crops in the upper slope area of Mts Gede-Pangrango, West Java, covering an area of 78,290 ha. The research objective was to delineate the suitable land that is available for high altitude vegetables crops. In the first step, land suitability was analysed using multi-criteria decision-making methodology. The criteria used include those grouped within the parameters of land, topography, climate and ease of management; criterion consists of sub-criteria. The criteria were weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, while sub-criteria were scored according to their contributions to land suitability. The weights of the criteria and scores of the sub-criteria were used for delineating land suitability in a geographic information system model. In the second step, the land availability was analysed by taking into account the constraints of forest area status designation and the spatial pattern of official land use plan map. Results of both analyses were used to delineate suitable and available land for tropical high altitude vegetables crops. The results showed that the amount of land that was suitable and available for tropical high altitude vegetables crops was 23.7% of the analysed area. The area of suitable and available land that is actually not used yet is 9% of the area analysed, which could be recommended for the expansion of vegetable crops. Land that is suitable and available, either land that is already used or land that is not yet used, could be designated as priority lands to be protected from the pressure of non-agricultural land utilization in order to maintain the sustainability of vegetable availability
Hiren Bhavsar, Fisseha Tegegne and Krisden Ingram

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A Merritt Blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, USA.

Key words: Greenhouse, energy use, middle Tennessee, profitability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 12-15.

Abstract: The greenhouse industry is an important sub-sector of agriculture. On average, greenhouse and nursery farms in the U.S. have 57 percent more cash receipts than all farms (Muhammed, 2000). Tennessee cash receipts for greenhouse and nursery farms was 307 percent above than the average in the US. However, greenhouse operations in Tennessee have declined over the years. The goal of this study was to acquire a better understanding of energy use by greenhouse businesses in Tennessee. The latest database containing greenhouse businesses was provided by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. A mailed survey was used to collect data that covered questions on energy use, marketing and skill needs of the businesses. The respondents were mixed in terms of size of their operations, education and income levels. Out of the 279 surveys, 56 were returned, resulting in a 20 percent response rate. To determine the different factors affecting profitability of greenhouse operations, this study utilized correlation and chi-square tests using different variables. Results indicate that profitability of greenhouse operations is influenced by the rising energy cost, economic downturn and size of operation. The survey also indicates that growers would consider adopting alternative energy saving methods depending on their income and age. The study shows the need to assist the growers in learning more about alternative energy saving methods and technologies. This study is beneficial not only for greenhouse businesses but also other stakeholders including policy makers and those working with growers. Other researchers can also undertake similar studies using the approach used here with appropriate modification.
V.R. Logegaray, D. Frezza, A. Chiesa. and A.P. Le�n

Departamento de Horticultura, Facultad de Agronom�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Mart�n 4453 (C1417DSE) CABA, Argentina.

Key words: Nasturtium officinale, quality, gas concentration, chlorophyll, weight loss, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, oxalic acid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 16-18.

Abstract: Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is an aquatic plant of the Brassicaceae family and used as a leafy vegetable that grows in and around water. It is consumed raw or steamed and has a short shelf life of approximately seven days. The objective of this study was to evaluate the postharvest behaviour of watercress minimally processed and stored at optimal storage temperature vs. market temperature. Treatments were: shoots packed with plain film (PD961EZ, 31�m thickness) and stored in refrigerated chambers at 1 � 0.5 oC and 8 � 2 oC for 10 days. Overall visual quality, gas concentration inside the packages, chlorophyll, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and weight loss were evaluated. At the end of the storage period overall visual quality, gas concentration and reducing sugars were affected by storage time and temperature, whereas dehidro ascorbic, oxalic acid and weight loss were not.
X. Alex Isac, K.R.Rajadurai, M. Jawaharlal, K. Arul Mozhi selvan, D. Uma, Hena roy and Nabrun Bhattacharyya

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. 2Horticultural College & Research Institute for Women, Navalur kutapattu, Trichy, India. 3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Ch

Key words: Jasminum sambac, Electronic Nose, MOS, volatile emission

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 19-24.

Abstract: The Jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) flowers are highly fragrant and used for extraction of essential oil, preparation of perfumes and scented water. Since there is a growing demand for the fresh flowers, there arises a need to develop a technique to identify the flower quality in non-destructive and quickest possible manner. A study was undertaken using hand held electronic nose technology (HEN) at the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year 2013-2015.The result showed that, the HEN device generated Aroma Index (AI) score increased over the flower development stages and varied from 0.41 in immature bud (stage I) to 4.26 in matured bud (stage V). The comprehensive study on quantum of fragrance releasing pattern at different flower opening stages (physiologically matured bud to fully opened flower) over period of time interval showed that, minimum of 5.41 was recorded in an unopened closed bud stage which gradually increased upto 41.26 in the fully opened flowers. The biochemical constituents responsible for the unique jasmine flower fragrance were identified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).
K.S. Nirmala, B.V. Champa and A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda

University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065. University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot 587 102. University of Horticultural Sciences, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru-560 065

Key words: Genetic diversity, Jasminum, AFLP, wild, cultivated

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 25-29.

Abstract: Jasmines (Jasminum sp.), a native of tropical and subtropical region, are esteemed for their attractive fragrant flowers and essential oil. However, very meagre information is available on the genetic relatedness among species and cultivars of jasmine. This study analyzed genetic relatedness of 48 genotypes across 26 species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers. Of the ten sets of primers screened, four sets were selected for the present investigation on genetic diversity. A total of 212 bands were scored, of which 90.5% were polymorphic. The relationship among genotypes was analyzed using Unweighted Pair Group method of cluster analysis. Among 48 genotypes J. auriculatum formed a separate node while rest of the 47 genotypes formed two major clusters with two sub clusters in each. Cluster I comprised of 28 genotypes and cluster II had 19 genotypes. It was difficult to classify the genotypes either based on geographical region or based on their cultivation since there was assortment of wild and cultivated species. However the results reflect a high level polymorphism suggesting occurrence of genotypes of diverse genetic background that will be useful in breeding programmes.
Shigeru Satoh, Yoshihiro Nomura, Shigeto Morita, and So Sugiyama

1Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu 520-2194, Japan. 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan. 3Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto 619-0224, Japan. * E-mail:

Key words: pyridinedicarboxylic acids; spray-type carnation; carnation cultivars; flower bud; time to flower opening; vase life; gross flower opening

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 3-6.

Abstract: Pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) analogs accelerate flower opening and retard senescence, which markedly extend the vase life of spray-type Light Pink Barbara (LPB) carnation. In the present study, we characterized the activity of these chemicals to develop a novel flower care agent for a practical use. A representative PDCA analog 2,4-PDCA is effective in a wide range of spray-type carnation cultivars, Barbara, Beam Cherry, Candle, Collin, Rascal Green and Scarlet Ostara, as well as LPB and Mule. Treatment of LPB flowers for the initial 24 h with 2,4-PDCA at 5 and 10 mM was almost as effective as the continuous treatment with the chemical at 2 mM.
Shafna Kalarikkal, P. S. Udayan and M. Asha Sankar

1Department of Plantation Crops & Spices, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur District, Kerala, 2 P.G. Department of Botany & Research Centre, Sree Krishna College, Ariyannur P.O., Guruvayur, Thrissur District, Kerala,

Key words: Phyllanthus spp., Kerala, harbaceous, morphology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 30-33.

Abstract: Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn belonging to Euphorbiaceae is reputed for its hepatoprotective activity against Hepatitis B virus. Preponderance of other herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. often leads to deliberate adulteration or substitution, lowering the efficacy of medication. Hence surveying agro ecological zones of Kerala and characterizing natural population of Phyllanthus spp. morphologically will ensure the correct identity. Exploratory surveys were conducted adopting purposive sampling procedure and accessions of Phyllanthus spp. were collected from different agro-ecological zones of Kerala (coastal, plains, midlands and high altitude regions) representing northern, central and southern Kerala. The collected accessions were identified using morphological key characters of herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. as described in Flora of Madras Presidency by Gamble and Fischer (1915-1936). No considerable variations were observed for characters like, growth habit, branching pattern, leaf margin, capsule colour, capsule shape and flower colour. Accessions representing P. amarus were found to have oblong leaflet shape, obtuse apex and round base. Dark green, light green and purple green stem colour and faintly mucronate to mucronate leaf apices were observed for the collected accessions of P. urinaria. The accession of P. maderaspatensis had obcordate leaf apex. Number of sepals and pedicel length were identified to be the non variable quantitative characters in Phyllanthus. Highest plant height, was observed for P. virgatus var. gardnerianus, inferring that it is the tallest herbaceous Phyllanthus spp among the collected ones. Broad leaves were observed in P. rheedei and longest leaflets in P. virgatus var. gardnerianus and P. virgatus var. virgatus.
P.R. Paul, A.H.K. Robin and M.R. Hossain

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Key words: Musa sapientum L, seeded banana, endosperm culture, seedlessness, triploid, callus blackening, cold treatment

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 34-38.

Abstract: The local Bangladeshi banana varieties, possessing similar brix percentage to that of commercial varieties, grow well under adverse conditions with minimum care but are less popular due to the presence of seed. Endosperm culture of seeded banana can produce triploid seedless varieties which can be cultivated commercially in unsuited environments with less agricultural inputs. The current study was conducted to optimize the initial steps of endosperm culture using the immature endosperm of seeded banana cultivar Bhutia. Young fruits at various stages were collected from the local banana gardens to find out suitable developmental stage of endosperm for culture. Endosperms of juvenile fruits at 25 days age, exhibited jelly state, was selected for culture because endosperm explants at that age survived the most in MS medium. It was observed that non-treated explants produced larger calli comparatively quickly than that of cold-treated explants. Largest calli (0.41 cm) within shorter time period (27 days after inoculation) was produced in MS medium additionally supplemented with 0.5 ppm 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) besides 0.5 ppm 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 ppm Kinetin (Kn). The produced calli gradually became blackish in appearance and higher ascorbic acid content (480 mg/100g) was observed in blackish calli. Avoiding the blackening of calli derived from endosperm of seeded banana would be a challenge to establish a successful triploid production protocol in future.
Fatih Hanci, Esra Cebeci and Ayse Fidanci

Atatrk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova-Turkey.

Key words: Onion, Allium cepa L., in vitro, callus, salinity, embryo, explant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 39-43.

Abstract: Salinity is one of the major limitations for onion growth and productivity all over the world. There are several methods to determine of salt stress tolerance of plants such as germination tests, pots trials, in vitro experiments etc. This study was conducted for optimisation of rapid and practical method to compare onion genotypes under salinity conditions. In the first stage of the study, three explant types and twenty one combinations of plant growth regulators were tested for optimization of callus protocol. Callus indicate percentage (%), callus fresh weight (mg) and callus dry weight (mg) were measured on the 31st day. According to results, the best medium (MS + 2 mg/L 2,4-D + 0,5 mg/L BAP) and explant type (mature zygotic embryo) for the proliferation of callus were determined. After choosing the best hormone and explant type, the effect of salinity on callus induction was tested using different level of NaCl. Akgun-12 consistently performed the best in callus culture. Responses of onion cultivars were different for different parameters. The proposed method was simple to perform, as no long time is required, and offers a possibility to screen genotypes in any time of year.
K.M. Sharadraj and R.Chandra Mohanan

Central Plantation Crops Research Insitute (ICAR), Kasaragod 671124 Kerala, India.

Key words: Baiting, coconut, bud rot disease, Phytophthora palmivora.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 44-47.

Abstract: Earlier studies using different methods of isolations revealed that it is extremely difficult rather impossible in certain cases to isolate the pathogen, Phytophthora sp. from bud rot disease of coconut due to the presence of high population of other microorganisms like bacteria and fungi in the rotten tissue. Hence, it was very much imperative to develop an easy technique for isolations of Phytophthora sp. from samples collected from various locations. In the modified baiting method, different treatments were given to infected tissues before baiting with susceptible healthy plant tissues. Among the different treatments given to infected tissue, the treatment of keeping infected tissue in carbendazim (Bavistin 50 WP) 125 ppm + rifampicin 200 ppm solution was found to be better for successful infection of baits and successive isolation of Phytophthora palmivora (Mean 30%) irrespective of the baits used. Out of the seven types of baits used in this treatments, rachillae of young unopened coconut inflorescence, leaves of Loranthus parasiticus (L.) Merr. and leaves and young fruits of badam tree (Terminalia catappa L.) were found to be superior to others (with 33-37% success in isolation) and they were statistically on par. Tender leaves of badam tree yielded the highest percentage (37) of isolation of P. palmivora, when used as bait in the treatment carbedazim + rifampicin solution containing rotten bud tissue of coconut palms. Hence it can be used for large scale isolation of P. palmivora.
F.Y. Daramola

Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota Nigeria.

Key words: Helicotylenchus spp, Parkia biglobosa, population distribution, rainfall pattern, temperature changes, horticultural crops, Celosia argentea, Colocasia esculentum, Azadirachta indica, frequency rating, nematodes, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 48-53.

Abstract: The African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa Benth) is a perennial, deciduous fruit tree that is important for its myriad medicinal and nutritional benefits. The association of the spiral nematodes of the genus Helicotylenchus spp. with P. biglobosa has not been previously reported in Nigeria. Three P. biglobasa trees from University of Ilorin in the Guinea Savanna Ecological zone of Nigeria were purposively selected for nematode sampling for a period of five months (May to September). Eighteen field and horticultural crops were also surveyed to assess the population density of Helicotylenchus spp on selected agricultural crops in the local environment. Soil samples were collected monthly from the rhizosphere of P. biglobosa trees and also from the field crops to a depth of about 15 cm and within a 25 cm radius from the base of the plants. Vermiform nematodes were extracted from 250 g each of the composite samples using a modified Baermann extraction tray set-up. The spiral nematodes were frequently encountered in association with all the crops. Higher soil population of Helicotylenchus spp was recorded on Celosia argentea, Colocasia esculenta and Azadirachta indica at relative densities of 55.33, 42.11 and 25.6, respectively. The African locust bean trees also supported population build-up of Helicotylenchus spp which were found at a frequency rating of 100% in all the soil samples. Higher soil population of Helicotylenchus spp were recorded in June and September, coinciding with the two rainfall peaks while lower nematode population was recorded in August, at the lowest ambient temperature. The study indicated spiral nematodes as abundant and often associated with many agricultural crops at University of Ilorin, Guinea savanna of Nigeria. P. biglobosa was a suitable host for Helicotylenchus spp while the rainfall pattern and temperature changes influenced the population distribution of soil nematodes in the local environment.
Millicent Adhiambo Otiende, Julius Omondi Nyabundi and Kamau Ngamau

University of Kabianga, P.O Box 2030-20200, Kericho, Kenya. 1Maseno University, P.O Box Private bag, Maseno, Kenya. 2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62,000 00200 Nairobi, Kenya.

Key words: Cutting position, rose rootstocks, NAA concentration, IBA concentration, endogenous carbohydrate, grafting take

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 54-60.

Abstract: Inadequate grafting take of some of the rose cultivars may cause economic losses. The study was conducted to determine the effects of cutting position (top, middle and bottom) of Rosa hybrida rootstocks (Natal Briar and Rosa Progress) and auxins (0 %, 0.4 % IBA and 0.2 % NAA) on rooting and grafting take of rose cultivar Inca. Changes in endogenous carbohydrate content during rooting were measured on days 0, 3 and 7 after sticking. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design. Interaction between cutting position and rootstock was significant (P ? 0.05) for most of the parameters measured. The shoot height, root number, percent rooting and grafting take increased towards the basal position in Rosa Progress. In Natal Briar, the shoot and root growth parameters increased towards the top though non significant except grafting take that significantly increased towards the basal position. The auxin treated cuttings recorded significantly (P ? 0.05) higher grafting take and rooting percentage than the control. 0.4 % IBA exhibited higher shoot height, leaf number and root number than 0.2 % NAA. The rootstock Natal Briar recorded significantly (P ? 0.05) higher rooting percentage and grafting take than Rosa Progress. Middle and top position cuttings of Rosa Progress and Natal Briar recorded higher carbohydrate content, respectively than bottom position cuttings. Bottom position recorded higher sucrose content on day 3 than days 0 and 7 after planting in Rosa Progress. Natal Briar exhibited significantly (P ? 0.05) higher carbohydrate content than Rosa Progress. The increase in growth with top position cuttings of Natal Briar could be attributed to high carbohydrate content. The high growth responses in bottom position cuttings of Rosa Progress could be attributed to high sucrose content on day 3 after planting. The stem cuttings of rootstocks for top grafting rose cultivar Inca should be taken from bottom position cuttings of both rootstocks, and auxins should be applied to increase rooting and grafting take.
A.K. Srivastava, S.K. Yadav, L.C. Diengdoh, R. Rai and T.K. Bag

ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Shillong- 793 009 (Meghalaya), India.

Key words: Potato, micro-plants, plant density, yields potential, net-house.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 61-63.

Abstract: The present study was conducted to standardize the crop geometry under net-house with micro-plants of two popular potato varieties, Kufri Himsona and Kufri Girdhari planted at two spacing viz., 20 x 10 cm and 15 x 10 cm at Central Potato Research Station, Shillong during 2013 and 2014. The effect due to spacing and varieties was significant for all the plant growth and yield parameters except for plant survival among varieties. Plant survival was better in all treatments (> 80%). The plant growth was superior in terms of plant height, at wide spacing (20 x 10 cm) although canopy cover was more at narrow spacing (15 x 10 cm). Kufri Himsona exhibited better growth with more stem height, number of leaves/plant, stems per plant and better canopy cover at 30 DAP than Kufri Girdhari. Kufri Himsona yielded better in terms of numbers and weight of mini-tubers per plant as well as per unit area compared to the variety Kufri Girdhari. More number of tubers per plant was observed at closer spacing (15 x 10 cm) but better yield per plant was obtained at wider spacing (20 x 10 cm) due to increased competition for nutrients, space, sunlight etc. leading to an increase in number of tubers per plant but subsequent decrease in total tuber yield per plant at closer spacing. At closer spacing more small sized tubers were harvested (<3g to 20g) while at wider spacing more larger sized tubers were harvested (over 20g). Among varieties, Kufri Himsona yielded more large sized tubers as compared to Kufri Girdhari. Thus depending on the seed size requirement and availability of area under net house, either narrow or wide spacing can be followed for production of mini-tubers from potato micro-plants in North Eastern Himalayan region.
Mahbube Someh, Ghaffar Kiani, Gholam Ali Ranjbar and Seyyed Mohamad Alavi

Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. 2Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

Key words: Cucumber, Genetic diversity, Cluster analysis, RAPD markers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 64-67.

Abstract: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most economically important plants in many countries of the world. The identification of cultivars is extremely important both for cultivation and breeding of crop plants. There is little known about the genetic relationships between cucumber genotypes in Iran. The genetic diversity and the relationships among 20 cucumber varieties were evaluated by RAPD markers. A total of 155 bands were generated with15 RAPD primers, out of which 114 bands were polymorphic (73 %). The mean polymorphism index content (PIC) was 0.24. Considerable levels of polymorphism were observed within cucumber varieties. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard similarity coefficients grouped varieties into three main clusters. The data obtained from this study can be used to select suitable parents in hybridization breeding programs in cucumber.
C.N. Muruli, K. Bhanuprakash and B.C. Channakeshava

1University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560065, India. 2ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-560089, India.3University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560065, India.

Key words: Onion seeds, seed priming, seed vigour, seed ageing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 68-70.

Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to identify the effect of seed priming on vigour in fresh and aged seeds of onion (var. Arka Kalyan). It was observed that seed priming with GA3 (50 ppm), KNO3 (3 %) and PEG (-1.5 Mpa) were shown significant impact on germination and vigour. Aged seeds responded to the priming treatments effectively than fresh seeds. Among various treatments studied, there was an increase of germination in fresh seeds to the extent of 5 % due to treatment with GA3, whereas in aged seeds it was to the extent of 11 % due to PEG treatment.

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