Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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Ravindra Kumar, R. Chithiraichelvan, S. Ganesh, K.K. Upreti and V.V. Sulladmath

Division of Fruit Crops; Division of Plant Physiology & Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore-560 089, Karnataka, India. Faculty of Agriculture, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed University), Gandhigram,

Key words: Fig, growth characters, pruning, fruit quality, tree spacing, fruit yield, photosynthesis, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 52-57.

Abstract: Effects of tree spacing (5x2 m, 5x2.5 m, 5x3 m, 5x3.5 m and 5x4 m) and pruning (8 buds/cane, 6 buds/cane and 4 buds/cane) on growth, physiological parameters, fruit yield and quality were studied in fig cv. Poona during 3rd and 4th years of planting. Results indicated that the fig responded more to tree spacing than the pruning levels in terms of morpho-physiological characters and yield. With increase in in-row tree spacing from 5x2.5 m to 5x4 m, the vegetative growth parameters like leaf number, shoot length, internodal length, tree spread, tree height and tree circumference and the fruit yield both in terms of fruit number and fruit weight per tree declined under different pruning levels and closer tree spacing of 5x2.5 m recorded higher values. Physiological parameters like photosynthesis rate and leaf water potential remained at higher levels under closer spacing as compared to the wider spacing under different pruning levels. The increased pruning levels from 8 buds/cane to 4 buds/cane resulted in reduction of tree height while yield characters were marginally influenced by the pruning. The interaction effects between pruning and spacing levels were, however, non-significant. Under 5x2.5 m, the average fruit size and TSS recorded the highest values with no marked differences in acidity. The fruit yield calculated on per tree basis showed highest fruit number of 84.3-253.0 and 232.3-321.5 and fruit weight of 2.69-8.61 and 7.43-9.44 kg, respectively during 3rd and 4th year of planting under closer spacing of 5x2.5 m with 8 buds/cane pruning. The yield per hectare under various pruning levels recorded high values under the closer spacing of 5x2.5 m or 5x2.0 m with 8 buds/cane pruning. Overall results showed that 5x2.5 m tree spacing in combination with light pruning level of 8 buds/cane is ideal for achieving higher growth and yield in fig during 3rd and 4th year of planting.
S.K. Dwivedi and Enespa

Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025, U.P., India.

Key words: Wilt disease, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, cellulolytic enzyme, pesticides, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculantum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 58-65.

Abstract: Soil-borne pathogens (Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were isolated from the diseased plants of brinjal and tomato, identified by morphological analysis viz., PCM (Phase contrast microscopy) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). These pathogens produced cellulolytic enzyme in vitro and the activity of this enzyme increased with the increase in age of the culture. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produced more cellulolytic enzyme than F. solani. The activity of cellulolytic enzyme by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was more in 14th day-old culture and decreased with the increase of culture age whereas the activity of cellulolytic enzyme produced by F. solani did not decrease and enzyme activity increased with the increase in the age of culture (23rd day-old culture). In vitro efficacy of systemic fungicides viz., Roco (Thiophanate methyl 70% WP) and Chlorothalonil (non-systemic fungicide), herbicides viz., Syncore (Metribuzin 70% WP), 2, 4- D (2, 4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and insecticides viz., Nuvan (Dichlorvos 76% EC), Prima (Acetamiprid 20% SP) against F. solani and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were evaluated using poisoned food technique at 100, 200, 400 ppm concentrations on 7th day of inoculation. The fungicide (Chlorothalonil) inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani by 82.34%, while Thiophanate methyl inhibited F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by 77.96% respectively at 400 ppm concentration. Herbicide (Metribuzin) inhibited the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. solani by 75% and 62.50%, respectively at same concentration followed by insecticides Dichlorvos (56.87%) and Acetamiprid (53.12%), respectively.
Shivali Sharma, K. Kumar and Amit Kumar

Department of Fruit Science, UHF, Nauni-Solan (Himachal Pradesh), Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Jammu, India.

Key words: Growth, divergence, exotic cultivars, local selections, walnut germplasm

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 66-69.

Abstract: Exotic cultivars introduced from abroad and local selections from seedling population of walnut were subjected to Non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis based on 12 nut and kernel characters. Studied accessions were grouped into four clusters, where cluster 1 and 3 had majority of the accessions. The clustering pattern of walnut genotypes belonging to the same eco-geographical region revealed their distribution in more than one cluster showing between geographic and genetic diversity. The first component presented maximum eigen root value and per cent variation. The mean intra and inter cluster distance (D) revealed that cluster 4 had highest intra cluster distance (2.206), while the inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster 3 and 4 (5.806). Maximum mean nut yield, nut length, nut weight and kernel weight was recorded in cluster 4, whereas, maximum kernel percentage and fat percentage was recorded in cluster 1 and 2, respectively. Minimum shell thickness was observed in cluster 2. The accessions of cluster 3 and 4 were found highly diverse from each other and will give better segregants after hybridization which can be used as a parent in further breeding programme.
Srilatha Vasanthu, K. Sunil Kumar, B. Padmodaya and C. Kiran Kumar Reddy

KVK, ANGR Agricultural University, Utukur, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh-516003. ARS, ANGR Agricultural University, Utukur, Kadapa Andhra Pradesh-516003

Key words: Papaya, boron deficiency, leaf boron, deformed fruits and yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 70-75.

Abstract: Boron deficiency in papaya causes deformation of apical meristem, distortion of young leaves, dwarfing of plants, fruit deformities and uneven fruit ripening that severely reduces the yield and quality. Hence, an experiment on effects of foliar application of boron on yield and quality of papaya with a commercially important variety Red lady was conducted at fifteen locations of Andhra Pradesh where the boron deficiency is wide spread due to tropical climate and high soil pH. Foliar application of 0.03 % borax at every 60 days interval from planting to harvest recorded significant increase in the leaf boron content from 18.44 mg kg-1 to 26.62 mg kg-1. Borax application recorded 29 % more number of fruits per plant, 37 % higher yields (65.28 kg plant-1) and reduced deformed fruits (13.58 %) compared to control (21.34 %). The study clearly indicated that, the regular supply of boron through foliar application in tropical climate is vital for realizing higher yields in papaya.
D. Singh, M.I.S. Gill, R.S. Boora and N.K. Arora

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab. PAU Regional Fruit Research Station, Bahadurgarh, Patiala, Punjab

Key words: Psidium guajava, genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 76-78.

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation coefficient among 35 guava (Psidium guajava L.) genotypes, evaluated for tree, vegetative, reproductive, fruit and seed characters during 2010 to 2013. Wide range of phenotypic variability in the studied material was observed as phenotypic coefficients of variation for different traits ranged from 8.17 for fruit width to 35.00 for number of seeds per fruit. Genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters ranged from 6.95 to 33.11 percent. Heritability ranged from 73.97 to 99.77 percent. Very high heritability estimates were obtained for fruit length to width ratio. The genetic advance as per cent of mean was highest for number of seeds per fruit (64.52 %). Characters like seed weight per 100 g fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, thickness of outer flesh and fruit weight had high heritability and higher genetic advance, which indicate that the expression of these characters is governed by additive gene action. Genotypic correlation coefficients, in general, were higher in magnitude than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients indicating an inherent association among various characters under study. Presence of genetic variability along with high heritability and genetic advance indicate that these genotypes can be further utilized in guava breeding programme, keeping in mind the inherent association of various agronomical important traits to combine the desired traits into a single line/cultivar.
Angrej Ali and B.P. Singh

Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh-224 229 (India).

Key words: Cape gooseberry, crop residue, NPK fertilizers, Physalis peruviana L., plant spacing, soil properties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 79-84.

Abstract: The cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), a quick growing herbaceous crop, leaves behind a good amount of crop residue in the field after fruit harvest that can be utilized as organic source of plant nutrient supply to next crop to be cultivated. In present investigation, crop residue of cape gooseberry grown in sodic soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh (India) at three planting density (S1 - 75 x 60 cm, S2 - 75 x 75 cm and S3 - 90 x 75 cm) and four levels of NPK fertilizers (F0 - without fertilizers, F1 - 60:40:40, F2 - 80:60:60 and F3 - 100:80:80 NPK kg ha) was estimated. Soil properties were also studied before and after cropping seasons. Mean data of two consecutive years recorded crop residue (fresh biomass) production 34.51, 29.7 and 27.95 t ha-1 at S1, S2 and S3 plant spacing, respectively. The application of NPK fertilizers significantly increased crop residue production and mean value recorded with fertilizer level F0, F1, F2, and F3 was 22.00, 28.71, 34.24 and 36.63 t ha-1, respectively. Increased plant population per unit area as well as higher doses of NPK levels showed a little improvement in bulk density, porosity, organic carbon, pH and EC of soil but influence was non-significant, however, plant spacing and NPK fertilizer treatments exhibited significant improvement in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of the soil at the end of the second cropping season.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1.

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, precision viticulture, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 167-192 .

Abstract: The possible influence of vine water status upon berry composition was studied in ten commercial vineyard blocks of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet franc in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario from 2005 to 2007. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, soil moisture and leaf water potential (?), as an indicator of vine water status, were determined on ? 80 sentinel vines in each vineyard. In each block, water status zones were identified in GIS-generated maps using leaf ? and soil moisture measurements. Areas of low soil and vine water status were positively correlated linearly and spatially with areas of high Brix, color intensity, anthocyanins and phenols, and were negatively correlated with titratable acidity. In most vineyards, areas of high and low color intensity were positively correlated linearly and spatially with areas of high and low anthocyanins and phenols. Temporal stability was also noticeable for several variables including soil moisture, yield, berry weight, Brix, anthocyanins, and phenols. These data suggest that low soil moisture and low vine water status zones in vineyards are related to corresponding areas of superior berry composition. These data further suggest that precision viticulture techniques may be utilized in this region to delineate vineyard sub-zones of differing quality levels.
Kathryn Kamo, Kanniah Rajasekaran and Jeffrey Cary

Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, U.S. National Arboretum, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bldg. 010A, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA. Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orle

Key words: Flower bulbs, biolistics, transgenes, regeneration, tissue culture, corms, ornamentals, gene gun bombardment, callus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 193-198 .

Abstract: The growth characteristics of transgenic Gladiolus plants cvs. �Peter Pears� and �Jenny Lee� were compared to non-transformed plants either regenerated from embryogenic callus or micropropagated in vitro. Micropropagated and regenerated plants of �Peter Pears� showed similar sprouting percentage of corms in vitro and daughter corm production after one season in the greenhouse. Differences were found in the weight of corms produced in vitro and the length of leaves with the regenerated corms weighing less and having shorter leaves than those of micropropagated plants. Transgenic plants of �Peter Pears� had similar corm weights to those from regenerated plants, but the greenhouse sprouting percentage, leaf length, and daughter corm production was less than that of regenerated plants. Micropropagated plants of �Jenny Lee� were similar to regenerated plants in weight of corms grown in vitro, sprouting efficiencies, and the length of leaves. Transgenic plants of �Jenny Lee� produced larger corms in vitro than regenerated plants, and both the final weight of transgenic corms and leaf length after one season in the greenhouse were comparable to that of regenerated plants of �Jenny Lee�. �Jenny Lee� plants were less affected by the regeneration and transformation conditions than �Peter Pears�.
V.P. Sosa-Flores, F. Ramrez-Godina, A. Benavides-Mendoza, H. Ramrez

Departamento de Horticultura, Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autnoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, C. P. 25315, Mxico.

Key words: Irradiance, photoreceptors, signaling, seed irradiation, seed priming, Cucumis melo.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 199-204 .

Abstract: It is well known that exposure of plant seedlings or plants to UV-B radiation induces changes in gene expression resulting in biochemical and morphological modifications. However, there is little information on the effects and potential utility of irradiation of seeds with UV-B. The aim of this study was to apply UV-B radiation in melon seeds using various irradiation times and then assess the effect on growth and morphology of the plant. Seeds of cultivar Topmark were exposed to UV irradiation with wavelength centered at 302 nm, for periods of 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes (UV dosages of 0, 99, 198 and 297 mJ cm-2, respectively). The irradiated seeds were seeded in a mixture of peat moss and perlite for greenhouse germination. Morphological parameters such as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights were evaluated. Stomatal frequency, stomatal index, and length and width of stomata were studied. Histological analyses were conducted to determine the areas of the stem vascular bundle and xylem vessels, width and length of vascular bundles, and the area of the lumen of xylem vessels. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences between treatments, with the treatment of 15 minutes (99 mJ cm-2) of seed exposure to UV-B radiation generating 24.87 and 32.42 % more fresh and dry weight of the plants, respectively. Stomatal index was augmented on the adaxial surface by 52.26, 7.14 and 13.55 %, in the treatments of 99, 198 and 297 mJ cm-2, respectively, in contrast with the control treatment, while the length of stomata was increased by 6.99% in the treatment with 30 minutes exposure time (198 mJ cm-2). Stomatal frequency was unchanged by exposure to radiation. The irradiation of the seeds caused decrease in P, Ca and Na in the leaves of plants.
Yun-wen Wang, Bruce L. Dunn, Li Jiang and Daryl B. Arnall

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, The People�s Republic of China. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 740

Key words: Euphorbia pulcherrima, NDVI, bract colour, greenhouse

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 205-209 .

Abstract: Normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) values are vegetative indices, calculated from active canopy sensor measurements using the reflectance values for red and near-infrared. Use of NDVI sensors offers the possibility of rapid, non-destructive readings that correlate with plant properties such as plant biomass and plant nutrition when plants are green, however, the affects of color on NDVI sensor readings has not be investigated. Poinsettia cultivars �Enduring Marble�, �Ice Punch�, �Winter Rose Early Red�, �Prestige Red�, �Prestige Maroon�, �Peterstar White�, �Maren�, and �Orange Spice� were analyzed by an NDVI sensor starting four weeks after transplanting and through bract color development. The results indicated that cultivar effect, time effect and the interaction of cultivar and time on NDVI value were significant (P < 0.0001). An increase of NDVI value occurred from initial measuring date, and reached the greatest value (ranged from 0.718 to 0.837) between week 6 and week 7 for all cultivars except �Orange Spice� and �Winter Rose Early Red�. From the peak readings, all NDVI values in tested cultivars declined significantly, especially after bract coloration. This result demonstrated an inverse relationship with increased bract coloration and reduced NDVI readings, so use of NDVI readings to detect N deficiencies should be before bract coloration in poinsettias. However, the NDVI sensor could be used to monitor bract colour development. Because the effects of cultivar, time, and the interaction between cultivar and time were significant, standards using a pocket NDVI sensor in specific cultivars during determined growth stages may need to be established at each growing facility.
F. Koohkan, N. Ahmadi and S.J. Ahmadi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Jaber Ibne Hayyan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Key words: Chlorophyll, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), vase solution, ethylene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 210-214 .

Abstract: Most of the carnation cultivars are sensitive to exogenous ethylene and their petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production during senescence. Compounds containing silver have been shown to act as anti-ethylene agent in improving postharvest characteristics of cut flowers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications by applying four concentration of silver nano-particles in vase solution of cut carnation cultivar �Miledy�. ICP-AES analyses revealed that the higher amount of silver was absorbed in various tissues of plants treated with 5 mg L-1, compared to other concentrations. Cut stems of �Miledy� cultivar receiving 5 mg L-1 of silver nano-particles showed the highest vase life and the lowest rate of ethylene production. The tissue accumulation of Ag element was generally higher in basal stem ends and leaves treated with 5 mg L-1 than other concentrations. The results of ICP and ethylene measurement showed that silver nano-particles reduced ethylene production as well as bacterial growth in vase solution and resulted improved vase life of carnation.
R. Dasmohapatra, S. Rath, B. Pradhan and G.R. Rout

Department of Fruit Science, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 003, Odisha, India,

Key words: Cashew, genetic similarity, molecular marker, genetic variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 215-221 .

Abstract: Morphological and PCR based molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of cashew (Anacardium occidentales L.) genotypes of India. Wide genetic variation was observed in respect to nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage, plant height, trunk girth of the potentially superior genotypes. A wide variation was noticed with regards to fruit quality, colour of fruits, nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage and apple weight. Twenty RAPD primers and 14 ISSR primers were used to detect the genetic variability among and between the genotypes. One hundred eighty-eight polymorphic bands and 31 monomorphic bands were observed by using both RAPD and ISSR primers. Twenty RAPD primers yielded 19 monomorphic and 84 polymorphic bands with percent of polymorphism was 81.55%. Of a total 116 ISSR bands generated by using 14 ISSR primers, 104 bands (89.65 %) were found to be polymorphic. Cumulative data generated from these two markers precisely arranged genotypes into 14 clusters. It was also noted that the var. BBSR-1 and Vengurla-7 were grouped into a single cluster and phenotypically they are similar with each other. Two dimensional scaling by principal component analysis indicates that some of the genotypes are out grouped. The major bands having 300 - 600 bp generated with PCR based markers can be used for identification of genotypes. This information will be useful for cashew improvement program as well as to assess the variety purity certification program.
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering-Regional Centre, Coimbatore-641 003.

Key words: Curry leaf, drying, temperature, air velocity, rehydration ratio, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 222-224 .

Abstract: In the present investigation, the effect of drying temperature and air velocity on the quality of Murraya koenigii leaves was studied. Freshly harvested, washed and stripped M. koenigii leaf (curry leaf) was dried at different air temperature of 40, 45 and 50 oC temperature and at 2, 3 and 4 m/s air velocity in a fluidised bed dryer from an initial moisture content of 184.5 % (dry basis) to a final moisture of around 5% (dry basis). The drying rate decreased with the decrease in the moisture content at all drying temperatures. Drying studies revealed that fluidised bed drying at 45 oC and 4 m/s air velocity was found to maintain the quality of dried curry leaf in terms of rehydration ratio and volatile oil content. The dried leaves packed in 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient condition (30.2 oC) for a period of one month resulted in better product as seen from the volatile oil content and overall acceptability for 4m/s fluidised bed dried sample at 45 oC.
S. Muthu Kumar, V. Ponnuswami and M. Jawaharlal

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Pulsing, 1-MCP (1-methyl cyclo propene), packaging, physiology, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 225-230 .

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of different pulsing, pre packaging (1-Methyl Cyclo Propene) and packaging treatments on postharvest physiology, quality and vase life of cut rose flowers cv. First Red. Among the treatments, W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) was found superior and it was associated with the highest values for appearance (score 5 - excellent), stem strength (900 angle), relative water content (92.95 per cent), water uptake (11.53 g stalk-1), freshness of flowers (100 per cent) and vase life (6.3 days). The same treatment W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) exhibited the lowest values for physiological loss in weight (3.58 per cent), transpirational loss of water (2.01 g stalk-1), loss of membrane integrity (7.48 per cent) and peroxidase activity (0.016 units g-1 of fresh weight of flowers).
P. Chaturvedi, D. Bisht and S. Tiwari Pandey

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Agronomy, G.B.P.U.A.&T., Pantnagar-263145, India.

Key words: Artemisia annua, artemisinin, seed germination, moisture stress, salinity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 231-234 .

Abstract: Each plant species has its own set of germination requirements consisting of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of various extrinsic factors viz., temperature, moisture and salt concentrations affecting ex situ seed germination of different populations of Artemisia annua growing in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. All the populations were susceptible to changes in abiotic conditions viz., moisture and salinity levels in dose dependent manner. All, invariably, showed maximum germination at alternate day/night temperature (25/20 oC) than under constant temperatures. Among the different populations, V-IV, a non-pigmented, early flowering population was the most tolerant one as it showed broader range of germination percentage ranging from 66�6.1 at -5 bar to 40.0�7.6 at -15 bars and 62.7�7.0 at 0.2% NaCl to 9.3�1.3 at 0.8% NaCl, respectively.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture