Abstract: Studies were conducted to assess the prevalence and damage caused by four threatening pests viz., red weevil (Apoderus blandus), looper (Perixera illepidaria), leaf roller (Dudua aprobola), bagworm (Eumeta crameri) and one disease, ‘leaf and twig blight’ (caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., and Gloeosporium sp.) at National Research Centre for Litchi (NRCL) that were hitherto either unnoticed or of minor importance. Fixed plot surveys at the NRCL Experimental Farm and scouting surveys in farmers’ litchi orchard in major litchi growing areas of Bihar state were conducted during 2011-2012. The studies revealed the damaging potential and period of occurrence of these pests and disease in the major litchi growing areas. A. blandus was prevalent round the year except during extreme cool and hot weather months whereas P. illepidaria was prevalent from September-November and E. crameri during November-February. Peak infestation of D. aprobola was during July-February. Infestation of A. blandus, D. aprobola, and E. crameri drastically affected the growth of tree whereas P. illepidaria damaged the September flush that bears panicle in the ensuing season. The ‘leaf and twig blight’ disease was prevelent from the beginning of August to the end of February. These pests and disease are now important not only in Bihar but also other litchi growing states of India. Considering their importance, there is a need for continuous surveillance particularly during the likely period of occurrence so that effective management strategies can be adopted. This paper reports occurrence of E. crameri on litchi for the first time from India.
V. Vijayalakshmi, S. Poonguzhali, K. Ramamoorthy and N. Natarajan
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Abstract: The effect of physiological and biochemical changes were studied in seeds of TNAU tomato hybrid (CO-3) exposed to accelerated ageing for a period of 10 days and investigated for speed of germination, per cent germination, shoot, root length, dry matter production and biochemical attributes viz., free amino acids (FAA), electrical conductivity (EC), volatile aldehydes production - seedling length bio assay (BA), dehydrogenase (DH) and peroxidase (POD) activity against untreated control (fresh) seeds. E.C., FAA and BA were negatively correlated with speed and percentage germination, root/shoot lengths, dry matter production, DH and POD activity. Speed of germination was highly and positively correlated with per cent germination (0.923), root length (0.971), dry matter production (0.940), dehydrogenase (0.776) and peroxidase activity (0.676) and it was negatively correlated with free amino acid content (-0.990) and electrical conductivity (-0.936).
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester and Thomas M. Elias
Pomology and Viticulture Program, University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA
Key words: cultivar performance, fruit flavor, nectarine selection, stone fruit adaptability
Abstract: White-fleshed nectarines have gained popularity in recent years but there is limited information on their adaptability. Thus, the objective of this trial was to investigate growing degree-days (GDD; base temperature of 4.4 oC), full bloom and harvest dates, fruit quality, and yield of five white-fleshed nectarines [(Prunus persica var. nectarine)] under conditions of southwest Idaho in the Intermountain Region of the United States during 2003-07. The average response analyses over these years indicated that ‘Arctic Jay’ and ‘Arctic Pride’ bloomed earlier, while ‘Arctic Mist’ bloomed later than other cultivars. Arctic Jay was the earliest and Arctic Snow was the latest cultivar to harvest and needed 136 days and 181 days between full bloom and harvest, respectively. On average, ‘Arctic Pride’, ‘Arctic Mist’, and ‘Arctic Snow’ were harvested after the second half of September, and the periods between bloom and harvest for these cultivars were 166, 180, and 181 days, respectively. The difference between the earliest and latest cultivar for full bloom dates was only 2 days or 14 oC GDD, while the range for harvest dates was 16 days or 608.2 oC GDD. ‘Arctic Jay’ had excellent fruit quality attributers and on average, was harvested on 21 August. ‘Arctic Pride’ had moderately large fruit size and high SSC and extremely attractive skin and flesh color, but had moderately low yield. Considering all factors evaluated in this project, ‘Arctic Jay’, ‘Arctic Queen’, and ‘Arctic Pride’ were suitable choices for early, mid, and late season cultivars, respectively. ‘Arctic Mist’ could have some potential for planting in this study. The growing season was not sufficient to mature ‘Arctic Snow’ and thus not recommended for the region.
Neeraj Dwivedi, Rajesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Major Singh
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Bag-01, PO- Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221 305, India. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.
Key words: Carotenoids, pepper, Simple Sequence Repeats, Quantitative Trait Loci
Abstract: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for oleoresin content were mapped in intraspecific advance recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of chilli derived from cross between two contrasting parents ‘California Wonder’ and ‘LCA235’. Oleoresin content of each RILs were estimated for 2 years (F8 and F9) along with parents. Three classes of molecular markers; simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to generate linkage maps. A total of two QTLs for oleoresin content were mapped on two linkage group (LG). QTL Qole.iivr-2.1 and QTL Qole.iivr-3.3 contributed a minimum and maximum phenotypic variation of 8.74 and 32.4%, respectively over the years. The results of this investigation may be useful in improving the nutritional quality of pepper. The genomic regions of stable QTLs identified may serve as potential target regions for fine mapping and development of molecular markers for manipulation of yield and morphological traits in pepper.
A.K. Harit, M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi
Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry 605014, India.
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that vermicast has beneficial effect on plant growth but little is known on how the manner and duration of storage affect the vermicast quality. In an attempt to cover this knowledge-gap we have carried out a study on changes in physical and chemical properties of vermicast as function of ageing when it is stored. The study revealed that most of the characteristics of the castings were retained during the first 60 days of storage. Further as storage was continued, the physical properties such as total and water filled pore space were reduced by 11 and 40%, respectively. The water holding capacity of castings also reduced about 82% and exhibited high degree of water repellency. Whereas, the bulk density and particle density of castings increased two-fold. These changes may impede the water availability, oxygen diffusion and plant root penetration in the field. The nitrogen loss of 49% was recorded due to intense ammonia volatilization. There was more than 75% loss in potassium and phosphorus content and a significant reduction in the concentration of minor and trace nutrients. These changes in the properties of castings reduced the beneficial impact of vermicast on plant growth.
C. Krishnamoorthy and K. Rajamani
Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Key words: Theobroma cacao L., fertigation, drip, micro sprinkler, water soluble fertilizer, straight fertilizer, pod characters
Abstract: A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler of N, P and K fertilizers on pod characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at Coimbatore, India during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. The study revealed that, fertigation with 125 per cent RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) as water soluble fertilizer by drip irrigation (T4) recorded the highest pod length (17.72 cm), pod girth (28.69 cm), pod weight (541.88 g), husk weight (387.83 g), pod volume (610.55 cc) and number of pods per tree per year (59.49) as against 12.98, 12.76, 31.69, 29.51, 34.66 and 21.05 % increase over the control (T1), respectively. The same treatment (T4) recorded the lowest number of cherelle’s per tree (9.59) and pod value (16.11).
Gurpreet Singh, N.K. Arora and M.I.S. Gill
Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India.
Abstract: The present study was conducted to standardize the pruning technique in recently released grape hybrid H-516 for processing purpose. The grapevines trained on bower system of training were pruned at 2, 3, 4 and 5-bud level during last week of January. The maximum per cent fruitful buds were recorded at 2-bud level followed by 3, 4 and 5-bud pruning level. The significantly higher number of bunches per fruitful bud (2.23 at 4th node) were observed in pruning done at 4-bud level. The yield per vine was highest (15.2 kg yield per vine) in pruning treatments where 4-buds were retained. Bunch weight and size did not differ significantly with various pruning levels. Anthocyanin (52.24 mg/100g) and total soluble solids content (18.13%) was maximum whereas, acid content (0.53%) was minimum with 4-bud pruning treatment. Present study suggested that in grape hybrid H-516, at the time of pruning, 4-buds per cane should be retained for better yield and improved fruit quality.
M. Dayarani, M.S. Dhanarajan, K. Arun, S. Uma and Padma Narayani
Sathyabama University, Chennai, Jaya College of Arts & Science, Chennai. National Research Centre for Banana, Trichy, India.
Key words: Banana, M. ornata, seed germination, embryo rescue, in vitro germination, Rhodochlamys.
Abstract: Seed set in Musa spp. is known to vary greatly among seed-fertile cultivars, but germinate at an intractably low rate in soil thus making breeding of plantains and bananas difficult. Hence, there is an increased interest in in vitro germination of both intact seeds and excised zygotic embryos. The present work deals with the influence of maturity and hormonal factors on germination and regeneration of Musa ornata seeds through embryo culture and embryo rescue. Embryos extracted from seeds harvested at various maturity stages were cultured in MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Good embryo recovery was seen in seeds from 80 and 100% mature fruits. Maturity status of embryos played a key role in direct and indirect regeneration. Medium rich in auxins led to callus (M8) formation at all maturity levels, leading to indirect regeneration. Good direct regeneration was observed from 100% mature embryos, in media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (M4). Study revealed that zygotic embryos of M. ornata could be rescued and regenerated through callus when harvested at 80% maturity and media augmented with Kinetin (M6) gave the best regeneration. In general, medium rich in auxins led to callus formation at all maturity levels. Therefore, in vitro embryo culture and embryo rescue provide a potential tool for recovery and perpetuation of wild Musa species.
Anjali Chauhan, Praveen Pal Balgir and Chand Karan Shirkot
Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (HP), Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab).
Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are commonly used as inoculants for improving the growth and yield of agricultural crops. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Thus the present study focuses on the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of potent PGPR isolates with multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits and antifungal potential against different phytopathogenic fungi. Biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of four effective PGPR isolates (CKMV1, CKMV2, CKMV3 and CKMV4) of Valeriana jatamansi demonstrated that three strains belonged to genus Bacillus spp. and one belonged to Aneurinibacillus spp. The strain CKMV1 identified as (Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus) on the basis of 16S rDNA homology showed a considerable antifungal potential against different phytopathogens along with multiple PGP traits like phosphate solubilization, IAA production, HCN production, siderophore production. Significant growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by CKMV1 was obtained in the order Sclerotium rolfsii > Rhizoctonia solani > Phytopthora cactorum > Alternaria spp.> Fusarium oxysporum. Thus, the secondary metabolite producing A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 exhibited innate potential of plant growth promotion and biocontrol activities in vitro which can further be used as biofertilizer as well as biocontrol agent.
Tarique Hassan Askary, Mohammad Islam Shah Waliullah and Mohammad Maqbool Mir
Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Campus, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Division of Pomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Ca
Abstract: Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of stone fruits viz., peach, plum, apricot, cherry and nut fruits viz., almond and walnut from three year old nurseries at five different localities of Kashmir valley and processed to assess the population density of phytonematodes at each locality. Ten species/ genera of plant parasitic nematodes viz., Pratylenchus penetrans, Paratylenchus juglansi, Meloidogyne hapla, Tylenchorhynchus spp., Criconema spp., Rotylenchus spp., Xiphinema basiri, Longidorus spp., Hoplolaimus spp. and Helicotylenchus indicus were recorded. The most common nematode species which was frequently found in the rhizosphere of the surveyed fruit crops were Pratylenchus penetrans and Helicotylenchus indicus. Meloidogyne hapla was also common in all the fruit crops except peachand walnut. Paratylenchus juglansi was reported from the rhizosphere of walnutonly. Absolute frequency of P. penetrans and Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond and H. indicus in walnutwas 100% in three different localities. Absolute density and prominence value of H. indicus was highest i.e. 665 in walnut followed by 623 of P. penetrans in cherry and 618 of Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond at separate localities of the survey. Presence of varying densities and types of plant parasitic nematodes associated with stone and nut fruits reveal that plant parasitic nematodes form an important component in temperate fruit ecosystem which needs to be investigated for assessing the role of relative virulence of a particular species, host specificity and tolerance level in host.
T. Shanmugasundaram and K. Haripriya
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India.
Key words: Banana, post harvest loss, osmotic dehydration, value addition.
Abstract: The study was undertaken on osmotic dehydration of banana varieties viz., Poovan (AAB) and Dwarf Cavendish (AAA) to investigate the effect of temperature, sample thickness and osmotic time on the rate of osmosis. The results revealed that the maximum water loss and solid gain after osmosis were 57.9 and 15.5 per cent in Poovan and 53.1 and 11.8 per cent in Dwarf Cavendish. The moisture content of Poovan slices reduced from 2.03 kg H2O kg-1 dry matter (DM) to as low as 0.31kg H2O kg-1 DM when osmosed in 60 ºB syrup at 75 ºC. In case of Dwarf Cavendish, the moisture content reduced from 2.84 to 0.38 kg H2O kg-1 DM under similar conditions. Subsequent air dehydration resulted in further loss of moisture and the moisture content was reduced to a range of 0.03 to 0.18 kg H2O kg-1 DM after 4 to 8 h of drying.
Dimpy Raina, W.S. Dhillon and P.P.S. Gill
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Abstract: A study was undertaken to analyze the variation, heritability and correlation for vegetative and fruit characters for forty seven genotypes of pear at PAU, Ludhiana. Highest range of variation was recorded in fruit weight (70.0-213.0), TSS/acid ratio (19.7-69.0) and acidity (0.2- 0.5) with the mean of 151.11g, 43.70, and 0.29%, respectively. The PCV and GCV were observed maximum for the fruits number per spur, acidity, fruit weight and TSS/acid ratio. Heritability estimates were observed high for fruit weight (100%), flower number per spur (99.95%), TSS/acid ratio (99.79%), leaf breadth (99.73%) and fruit breadth (99.24%). A highly significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation was observed for fruit length with fruit weight (0.7463 and 0.7439), fruit breadth (0.5345 and 0.5318), TSS (0.2684 and 0.2667) and low significant with TSS/acid ratio (0.1796 and 0.1740). Similarly, positive significant genotypic correlation of fruit number per spur and flower number per spur was recorded with leaf breadth (0.2816 and 0.2814) and leaf length (0.5823 and 0.3598), respectively.
M.A. Chattoo, N. Ahmed, G.R. Najar, Angrej Ali, Z.M. Dar and Q.A.H. Dar
Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Wadura Campus, Sopore (Jammu & Kashmir)-193 201, India. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Rangreth, Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir)-190 005, India.
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on direct and residual effect of integrated nutrient management on crop productivity and physico-chemical characteristics of allfisols in okra-pea cropping system in Kashmir valley. The okra was grown as main crop and pea as residual crop. The experiment was laid out in simple square lattice design having 25 treatments with two replications. The pooled data revealed that integrated nutrient management significantly influenced the productivity of main as well as residual crop, physico-chemical properties and microbial activity of experimental soil. Among various treatments under study, treatment T24 (FYM, sheep manure, poultry manure and vermicompost (3, 2, 0.5, 0.6 tonnes ha-1, respectively) along with biofertilizers (Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria; both as seed inoculant @ 1.0 kg ha-1 and as soil inoculant @ 2.5 kg ha-1) and 50 % recommended dose (RDF) of fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O, 60:30:30 kg ha-1,respectively) resulted significantly maximum fruit yield of okra (272.71 q ha-1) and pod yield of pea (123.56 q ha-1). The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil under study showed an improvement with organics application as compared to initial, control and RFD. Soil under the treatment T24 showed lowest bulk density, particle density and pH; and highest porosity, EC, and organic carbon content. Available nutrients in soil (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphar) and microbial population (fungi and bacteria) were also recorded maximum with treatment T24.
P. Ranchana, M. Kannan and M. Jawaharlal
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC& RI, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, India
Key words: Tuberose, single types, pollen, selfing
Abstract: Pollen studies were conducted in ten single type genotypes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) viz., Shringar (Mexican Single x Pearl Double), Prajwal (Shringar x Mexican Single), Phule Rajani (Mexican Single x Shringar), Calcutta Single, Hyderabad Single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single, Pune Single, Navsari Local and Variegated Single at TNAU, Coimbatore, India. Studies revealed that pollen grains were round in shape, pollen viability in acetocarmine stain was 96.73% in the genotype ‘Variegated Single’ and the germination was maximum (99.21%) in 15% sucrose solution with other chemicals. Pollen tubes grew to a length of 1234.949 microns 24 hours after the dehiscence of anther. Among the genotypes under study, the highest fruit set was 89% under natural open pollination and 0% under artificial self pollination.
P.R. Meghwal, S.K. Singh, Akath Singh and Rakesh Pathak
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract: Carissa carandas, native to India is an underutilized fruit crop with tremendous phyto-therapeutic and nutritive importance. Seven diverse accessions and a released variety were evaluated for morphological, biochemical and molecular diversity. The test accessions varied significantly with regard to all the morphological characters except plant height and number of stipules per node. The accession, CZK2011 and CZK 2031 recorded 30 and 3% higher fruit yield over the variety Pant Manohar while other accessions gave almost equal fruit yield to variety Pant Manohar. The accessions CZK2012, CZK2021 and variety Pant Manohar were found precocious due to first fruiting at three years of age. Seven primers detected low intra-specific variation amounting to 25 % polymorphism and exhibited 11.1 to 57.1% polymorphism in banding pattern indicating narrow genetic base in the available germplasm. The accessions CZK2011, CZK2022 and CZK2031 may be recommended for cultivation in arid zone on account of their higher yield and bigger sized fruits.