Abstract: Most of the sapota fruit processing methods employed is still traditional. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view to understand the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. Objectives of this study were to generate data for physical and mechanical properties of sapota fruit (cv. Kalipatti) in order to facilitate the design of some machines for its processing. The moisture content of sapota fruit was found to be 72 to 76% wb. The results showed that linear dimensions varied from 62.19 to 50.10 mm in length, 42.16 to 31.90 mm in width, and 41.42 to 27.40 mm in thickness. Average weight and volume of fruit were measured as 55.50 to 38.20 g and 587.7 to 408.3 cc, respectively. The bulk density, true density and porosity were 0.915 g/cc, 1.053 g/cc and 13.10%, respectively. The geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area were obtained as 41.81 mm3, 0.75, and 19715.81 mm2, respectively. The average static coefficients of friction were measured as 0.20, 0.18, 0.12 and 0.15 on plywood, galvanized iron, glass and acrylic surfaces, respectively. The average peak cutting force, energy used for cutting, specific energy, ultimate cutting stress and deformation of fresh sapota was found to be 73.96 N, 228.42 N cm, 1.23 N/cm, 0.40 N/cm2 and 3.18 cm, respectively. The average peak puncture force, energy used for puncture, specific energy, ultimate puncture stress and deformation of fresh sapota fruit was found to be 62.17 N, 25.50 N cm, 0.13 N/cm, 0.33 N/cm2 and 0.42 cm, respectively.
Simrat Singh, R.K. Dubey and S.S. Kukal
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.
Abstract: Restricted pot volume and inadequate gaseous exchange in root zone environment restricts satisfactory growth and development of chrysanthemum plants. To this effect, an experiment was conducted to study the performance of cocopeat amended media mixtures in improving the root zone environment for satisfactory growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. The growing media mixtures such as farm yard manure and leaf mould as base media (25%) were amended with varying proportions each of soil: cocopeat (CP) as 75%:0; 50%:25%; 25%:50% and 0%:75% on volume basis. The media mixtures amended with increasing proportion of CP lowered the pH, bulk density, particle density and weight of the pots. The plants raised in media mixtures with increasing proportions of CP were observed to be well anchored and exhibited excellent quality of flowers. Utilizing 75% CP as a growing media amendment in FYM proved to be the best media mixture for ideal growth and performance of potted chrysanthemum. Better aggregate stability provided by the base media and increased K content in CP coupled with improved physical characteristics of media mixtures provide a suitable reason to utilize CP as a alternative light weight potting media for an ideal display of pot mums.
A. Kaur and H.S. Sodhi
Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.
Abstract: Volvariella volvacea is a tropical mushroom with variable biological efficiency which may be stabilized through isolation of single spore cultures. Eighty seven single spore cultures (VAT-1 to VAT-87) of V. volvacea strain VV132 were isolated from three fruit bodies. The single spore cultures were characterized for their growth and enzyme producing capability followed by yield trials. Maximum growth rate was recorded in VAT- 81 and maximum biomass production was recorded in VAT-15 and VAT-82. On the basis of growth characteristics, twelve single spore cultures were selected for enzyme activity and cultivation trials along with the parent strain VV-132. Maximum endo-1,4-?- glucanase (EC 22.214.171.124) activity was recorded in VAT-82 (0.158U/h/mg). Maximum xylanase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity and exo-1,4-?-glucanase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity were recorded in VAT-15 (0.155U/h/mg and 0.083U/h/mg, respectively). The laccase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity was maximum for VAT-73 (3.66U/min/mL). In comparison to parent strain V. volvacea VV132, five single spore cultures VAT-15, VAT-26, VAT-33, VAT-73 and VAT-81 had shown higher yield whereas the number of fruit bodies was higher for single spore culture VAT-81. During the present study, these five V. volvacea single spore cultures have been identified as high yielding strains.
K.L. Mary Rani, B. Narsimha Rao and M. Rambabu
Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi, Andhra Pradesh., India.
Abstract: Oil palm requires adequate irrigation and demands a balanced and adequate supply of nutrients for its growth and yield. Under irrigated conditions, studies were undertaken to standardize fertilizer and irrigation dose through fertigation and micro irrigation to improve nutrient and water-use efficiency, respectively. For these studies, the palm-wise data needs to be compiled and analysed to know the performance of various treatments. Software requirement analysis was done to identify the input and output characteristics of the experiments and related data management. Database modules were designed and developed in MS Access using the Visual Basic for Applications to record the palm-wise data on different characters and to retrieve information in the form of various reports for the selected period like day, month and year. User friendly screens were designed for this purpose. The software enables to retrieve the data on treatment means for various parameters and export it to Excel format for further analysis using any statistical software. The software was tested for its function and is implemented.
Swati Kumari, Mala Trivedi and Maneesh Mishra
ICAR - Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow, India. Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Abstract: Papaya is the first fruit crop which was not only successfully genetically engineered but also deregulated and commercialized. Pathogenic derived resistance was utilized for harnessing PRSV resistance. Coat protein gene from PRSV was invariably used to confer resistance against papaya ring spot virus. Microprojectile transformation has been the most preferred pathway. However, several reports are also available involving Agrobacterium pathway. Majority of workers found somatic embryos as the explant of choice for genetic manipulation in papaya compared to other explants. This paper highlights the global status of development of genetically engineered papaya for viral resistance.
S.S. Miller, C. Hott and T. Tworkoski
USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA.
Key words: Apple, carbohydrate, fruit quality, productivity
Abstract: Light is a critical resource needed by plants for growth and reproduction. A major portion of the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) tree’s canopy is subjected to shade during most daylight hours each day and such shade may affect productivity. The current research determined effects of morning, afternoon, and all-day shading on processes that are significant to orchard productivity. In 1996 ‘Ginger Gold’/M.9 apple trees were planted in the field near Kearneysville, WV and shade treatments were imposed from 2002 to 2005. Trunk and branch growth were reduced consistently by morning shade (MS) compared to no shade (NS) and full shade (FS) and afternoon shade (AS) had intermediate effects. Total branch growth from 2002 to 2005 was 164, 168, 145, and 157 cm for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Although shade affected yield inconsistently from year-to-year, total yield from 2002 to 2005 was 7.8, 201.6, 72.5, and 110.6 kg/tree for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Time of shading clearly affected yield with full shade causing the greatest reduction, followed by partial shade treatments, MS and AS. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, particularly sorbitol, were greater in leaves of AS compared to MS. It is postulated that MS may have adversely affected photosynthesis at a time of day that was most conducive to high net assimilation. Planting and training apple trees to minimize shade, especially morning shade, may benefit orchard productivity.
Eric T. Stafne, Becky Carroll and Damon Smith
Coastal Research and Extension Center, Plant and Soil Sciences Department, Mississippi State University, Poplarville, MS, USA 39470, 1-601-403-8939. 1Agricultural Hall, Department of Horticulture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
Abstract: Black rot, caused by Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, and bud cold hardiness are both management issues in eastern U.S. viticulture. Black rot infections lead to vine stress, resulting in premature defoliation and rotten fruit, potentially compromising cold acclimation of the vine. No studies have targeted bud cold hardiness in relation to severity of prior season black rot infection. Thus, in 2011, ï¿½Noiretï¿½, a hybrid winegrape, was subjected to four black rot control treatments: conventional (C), organic 1 (O1), organic 2 (O2), and no spray (N). Leaves and fruit were scored for black rot severity. The O1 and N treatments had the highest level of leaf and fruit disease severity and were not significantly different. The C treatment had the least amount of leaf and fruit disease severity and the O2 treatment was intermediate and significantly different from the O1, N, and C treatments. Bud samples were taken in January, February, and March 2012 and exposed to subzero temperatures (-21 ï¿½C, -23 ï¿½C, -26 ï¿½C, -29 ï¿½C) in an ethylene glycolbath to assess if prior season black rot infection impacted primary bud hardiness. In January and March nearly all buds were still alive at -21ï¿½C and -23ï¿½C, but -29ï¿½C caused more damage. Black rot control treatments were not a statistically significant factor in the bud hardiness experiment. This could be due to black rot severity being below a critical threshold for impact or the vines had enough time to recover in late summer and fall to reach full mid-winter hardiness.
Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Mohammad Hosein Rezadoost, Amir Hosein Zamani, Mohammad Reza Mirzaii and Ali Reza Afsharifar
Biotechnology Department, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. 2Plant Virology Research Center, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Abstract: Citrus trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates due to their luscious taste, nutritional and medical benefits. Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia and are among the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. Breeding programs including the incorporation of genetic resistance to pests and diseases are necessary in this crop. Citrus tristeza virus(CTV) is of particular importance due to its rapid epidemic resulting in severe plant damage. The present research was aimed at transforming Citrus aurantinum with a gene encoding virus coat protein from CTV through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. P25 coat protein gene was identified and then isolated from different CTV strains. Two regions of the gene were conserved among the genera and subcloned as a single chimer into a pFGC5941 silencing vector. Epicotyls-originated explants of C. aurantium were transformed by EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Some of the effective factors in gene transformation were examined by inoculation methods with Agrobacterium such as Acetosyringon effect (0, 50, and 100 ï¿½M), inoculation time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min), and co-cultivation period (1, 2, 3 and 4 days). Based on our results, maximum number of transformed plants (13.7%) were obtained under combined treatment of 50 ï¿½M acetosyringone after 15 min inoculation time and 2 days of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. One of the advantages of the current protocol is regeneration of explants through direct organogenesis which avoid callus phase and consequently somaclonal variation.
Fenghua Wang, Guangyuan Li, Shuangchen Chen, Yan Jiang and Shaoxian Wang
Forestry College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China.
Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, ‘time to flower opening’ and ‘vase life’, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion ‘gross flower opening’ which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
Randall P. Niedz*, Joseph P. Albano and Mizuri Marutani-Hert
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road Ft. Pierce, FL34945-3030, USA
Key words: Water, nonionic surfactants, gelling agents, malachite green, sodium sulphate, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. paradisi Macf., C. sinensis L. Osbeck
Abstract: The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined. Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity, malachite green, nonionic surfactants, and sodium sulphate. Tap water, with the highest levels of SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+, resulted in the most shoots compared to the other 5 sources, suggesting a mineral nutrient effect. Carrageenan produced fewer shoots than agar and gellan gum. Explants inserted into the medium produced more shoots than those cultured on the surface, presumably because of better exposure to water and nutrients. Seed size, light intensity, malachite green, and sodium sulphate had no effect on the number of shoots regenerated. Triton X-100 at 0.1 % resulted in significantly fewer shoots; otherwise, nonionic surfactants had no effect.
Department of Soil Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Geospatial Information Agency, Indonesia. 3Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia.
Key words: Geographic information system, horticultural crop, land evaluation, land use planning
Abstract: Cashews have a potential economic value for local people, and as a conservation plant that is appropriate for small islands, which usually have limited resource capacities. The research for this paper was conducted on Lombok Island, Indonesia with the objective to delineate the potential areas for cashew, based on land availability and land suitability. Land availability was analyzed by taking into account the land use and land cover maps interpreted from SPOT-6 imagery, a Forest Areas Status map and a map from the Official Spatial Land Use Plan. The evaluation of the land’s suitability for cashews was conducted at a land mapping unit resulting from a soil survey, carried out at a scale of 1:25,000. The suitability analysis was done using a maximum limitation method, where the suitability level was defined by the lowest soil characteristics which determined the plant’s requirements. The land evaluation criteria were established in previous research, which included this island as an area of criteria establishment. The research results show that the land on this island has suitability status for cashews ranging from S2 (moderately suitable) to N (not suitable). The limiting factors include water availability, nutrient retention, available nutrients and rooting media, some of which can be improved. According to the available and suitable land, an area of 4,075.6 ha can be assigned as first priority, 18,167.3 ha as second priority and 43,582.8 ha as third priority for cashew expansion areas.
S. Abdullakasim, K. Kaewsongsang, P. Anusornpornpong and P. Saradhuldhat
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom-73140, Thailand.
Abstract: Improvement of flower quality is a major concern which plays a part in the enhancement of the marketability of the Dendrobium cut flower. In this study, both synthetic cytokinins: N-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) and N-6-benzyladenine (BA), were foliar sprayed at rates of: 1, 5 or 10 mg L-1 and 100, 200 or 400 mg L-1, respectively, on current pseudobulbs of the Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul with 45-50 cm in length. The treatments were applied thrice at fortnight intervals, prior to terminal bud initiation. The results revealed that an application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU significantly increased the numbers of inflorescence per pseudobulb (from 1.1 to 1.7 flowers), and the number of flower on an inflorescence was increased from 12.2 to 13.8 flowers. The length and the diameter of flower inflorescence, having 10 mg L-1 CPPU application, also increased from 49.4 cm to 55.1 cm, and 0.57 cm to 0.66 cm, respectively. In addition, the largest flower width and the highest fresh inflorescence weight were also obtained with application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU treatment. Despite the application of BA, at 400 mg L-1, enhancing the highest amount of flower counts of inflorescence (at 14.8 flowers), 33.3% of those inflorescence obtained at least one deformed flower. Overall, the results suggest that CPPU spray has a higher potential to elevate flowers, along with the inflorescence qualities of Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul. Furthermore, according to this study, CPPU has lower effects upon abnormal flower shapes, and their times of harvest.
K. Ranjitha, C.K. Narayana, T.K. Roy and A.P. John
Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.
Key words: Sapodilla, wine, yeast, phenolics, wine clarification, head space volatiles
Abstract: Process was standardized for preparation of fermented beverage from sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill) Foseberg). The starter culture using yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae UCD 522 fermented juice from two sapodilla varieties viz., Cricket Ball and Oval, to obtain wines with 10.1-11.2 % alcohol, 0.44- 0.58 % acidity, 3.6-3.9 pH, 0.26-0.28 % residual sugar, 300-645 mg/L phenolics and <0.09 % volatile acidity in six to nine days at 18 °C. Retention of peel while pulping improved the phenolics level; but reduced the sensory quality of wine. Bentonite dosage and period required for clarification was optimized as 0.04 % for 14 days and 0.08 % for 21 days for production of wine from peeled fruits of Cricket Ball and Oval varieties, respectively. Sensory evaluation of dry, sweet, and flavored wines revealed the potential market acceptability of the wines. Head space volatile analysis showed the presence of new odorous compounds like esters and short chain fatty acids during vinification of sapodilla juice. Methoxy compounds and carbonyl fractions were less in the finished wine compared to natural juice.
Khumukcham Joshna and P. Pal
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India.
Key words: Carotene, Meteorological Standard Weeks, planting time, Tagetes erecta L. cv. Siracole.
Abstract: The investigation was carried out to evaluate the growth, flowering, yield and quality of African marigold cv. Siracole, as influenced by different planting dates. The crop planted on 9th June (T3) was found to have the highest plant height (96.93 cm). Maximum number of primary (5.3) and secondary (14.15) branches/plant, total fresh weight (502.00 g/plant), contribution by stem (385.00 g/plant) to the total fresh weight, higher dry (126.25 g/plant) matter accumulation and also the dry matter accumulation in stem per plant (98.00 g/plant) were found maximum with 12 April (T1) planting. The individual leaf area (4.73 sq cm) on 90 days after planting was significantly higher in the crop planted on 16 May (T2). It took minimum days (13.01 days) from visible bud to colour shown and bud emergence to full bloom (20.16 days), maximum diameter of individual flower (3.99cm) were found with 12 April (T1) planting. Heaviest flower (2.55 g) was recorded with October 12 (T7) planting. 16th May (T2) planting produced maximum number (7434.67) of flowers per plot (6.4 m2). Maximum carotene content was noted with 12th October (T7) planting. Crops planted between 50th MSW (T9) 2011 to 3rd MSW (T10) 2012 produced very less crop biomass, dry matter content and flower yield.
Bhalchandra Waykar and R.K. Baviskar
Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (Maharashtra), India.
Key words: Bee flora, floral calendar, honey flow period, dearth period, Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica,A. florea, A. mellifera.
Abstract: The study was conducted at Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district during October 2012–September 2013 to identify existing bee flora and to determine honey flow and dearth period to develop the floral calendar. The flowering plants were visited and observed for the presence of honey bees and their foraging activities. Plants were reported as bee foraging species when at least three honey bees had visited the flowers within the period of 10 minutes. The result revealed that 63 plant species were useful to honeybees as source of food, out of which 41 were wild and 22 were agro-horticultural plants. The identified flora was further grouped into nectar, pollen and both nectar and pollen supplying plants. Out of 41 wild bee plant species, 17 were nectar producing, 4 were pollen producing and 20 were both nectar and pollen producing. Results also revealed that out of 22 agriculture bee plant species, 6 were nectar producing, 5 were pollen producing and 11 were both nectar and pollen producing. Mid-October to mid-December was identified as honey flow period of the year, having number of flowering plants. Mid-May to mid-August was the critical dearth period with few flowering plants. Based on the availability of flora, major characteristics of these plant species, utility status and flowering duration, the bee floral calendar was developed for Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district. The result indicated that the area has rich bee flora and is suitable for commercial bee keeping. Paithan taluka has four honey bee species, viz., Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea and A. mellifera. Among these, A. florea and A. dorsata were dominant bee species, whereas A. mellifera was introduced species and only few colonies of A. cerana indica were observed.