SELECTED CONTENTS

 Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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R. Dhanalakshmi1, V. Vijaya Bhaskar2 and P. Subbaramamma3

1Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, 3Department of Plant Physiology, HCRI, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University,Venkataramannagudem-534101, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. 2Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, HCRI, Anantharajupeta-516105, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh.

Key words: Turf grass species, establishment, root length density, root mass density

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 70-74.

Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the rooting characteristics of turf grass species planted with two different methods of establishment. A two factorial experiment with two methods of establishment and four turf grass species was laid out in a randomized block design replicated thrice during the year 2014-2015. The rooting characteristics, such as number of roots per stolon, root length and distribution, root diameter, root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW), root length density (RLD) and root mass density (RMD) were studied during the course of investigation. The results showed that Bermuda grass planted with dibbling method of establishment recorded significantly higher number of roots, root length and distribution, RFW, RDW, RLD and RMD, whereas lowest rooting characteristics were exhibited by Korean grass planted with turf plastering method of establishment. The differences in RLD and RMD among different turf grass species observed to be related to the method of establishment adopted. Deep rooting species may have an advantage in absorbing the soil moisture from the deeper layers of the soil particularly during the water deficit periods thereby resulting in higher quality turf throughout the year.
Y.P. Sharma, K.K. Pramanick, J.S. Thakur, Santosh Watpade and Satish Kumar

IARI Regional Station (CHC), Amartara Cottage, Cart Road, Shimla-171004 (H.P.).

Key words: Malus, Pyrus, grain inoculum, rhizosphere, rooted sucker, differential reaction, white root rot, Dematophora necatrix

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 75-77.

Abstract: A screening technique for the identification of resistant germplasm of apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) to white root rot (Dematophora necatrix Hartig) was standardized under field conditions. Rooted suckers were planted in the field during late dormancy stage (February). These were challenge inoculated when plants had established in the field and attained new growth (during the month of July) by introducing fungus inoculum multiplied on wheat grain in the rhizosphere (50 grains/ sucker). Soil moisture was maintained at the field capacity. Different species exhibited differential reaction to disease development parameters viz., mycelial colonization of the infected plant parts, rate of wilting, defoliation, necrosis on the bark, wood and vascular region. Necrosis on the leaves was observed as first symptom of disease expression which took 10 days after the inoculation in susceptible species whereas incubation period was extended in resistant species. Most of the population of different susceptible host species collapsed within 30 days of inoculation. The mortality rate varied with species. The technique evolved is easy, quick, reliable and capable of creating required disease pressure under field conditions for screening rootstocks against white root rot disease.
S. Mahmood, M.M. Begum, N.N. Shati, M.H.T. Mondal and M.G. Hossain

Department of Horticulture, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh.

Key words: Postharvest, storage temperature, polyethylene bag, shelf-life, quality, Litchi chinensis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 78-83.

Abstract: Effect of postharvest treatments on shelf-life and quality of litchi cvs. ‘Bombai’ and ‘Madraji’ were studied. Fruits of both the cultivars were stored in polyethylene bags, bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining and open conditions at 5 °C and under ambient temperature for 9 days. In all the cases, fruits stored in open conditions lost weight rapidly and became unmarketable within 3 days due to rapid pericarp browning. In contrast, fruits kept in polyethylene bag had reduced weight loss and retained pericarp colour greatly during storage. Decay symptom was observed when the fruits were stored in ambient temperature either in polyethylene bags or in bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining. However, no decay symptom was found in fruits kept at 5 °C irrespective of storage treatments. The changes in TSS, ascorbic acid and total phenolics in the aril were minimum in the treatment of polyethylene bags than that of bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining and open conditions. Overall, fruits of both cultivars showed similar storage behavior and maintained better quality at 5 °C than ambient temperature.
Marcos R. da S Vieira1, Fabiana B. de Moura1, Adriano do N. Simões1, Angela V. de Souza2, Caio M. G. Santos3, Reinaldo de A. Paes4 and Ygor H. Leal1

1Department of Vegetable Production, Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada-PE, Brazi. 2Associação Educacional do Vale da Jurumirim, Avaré-SP, Brazil. 3Instituto Federal de Pernambuco, Campus Zona Rural, Petrolina-PE, Brazil. 4Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias-CECA, Maceio, AL, Brazil.

Key words: Ornamental, floriculture, potted plants, ethylene, bioregulators, polyamines, boron, gerbera

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 84-88.

Abstract: Polyamines and boron spray were applied on gerbera to study their effect on the quality of flowers in potted plants of gerbera cv. ‘‘Kosak’’. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with six treatments (control, 0.8 mL-1 boron, 2 mMol L-1 putrescine (Put), 2 mMol L-1 spermine (Spm), 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Put and 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Spm) replicated six times. Gerberas (ligules and leaves) cv. ‘‘Kosak’’ were sprayed once with 100 mL of each concentration as treatment. In all the treatments, 1 mL/100 L-1 of a non-ionic surfactant was added to improve wetting and spray distribution. The results indicated significant effect of Put, Spm and boron on measured traits (P?0.05). Mean comparison showed that 2 mMol L-1 Spm produced the better quality potted gerberas. It was verified that polyamines and boron was effective to delay flower senescence of gerberas ‘‘Kosak’’. However, the combination of the two substances (0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Put and 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Spm) had non significant effect on flower shelf life.
S. Bartolini, C. Iacona, D. Remorini and R. Viti

Scuola Superiore Sant Anna, Institute of Life Science, Pisa, Italy. Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Key words: Prunus armeniaca L., dormancy, xylogenesis, flowering, fruiting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 171-177.

Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the involvement of weather conditions and the influence of two Prunus rootstocks (Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling) on flower bud biology of Pisana (Prunus armeniaca L.), one of the most appreciated Italian apricot cultivar, grown in a Mediterranean agro-climatic environment. Anatomical investigations on xylem differentiation within flower buds and biological observations on flowering as well as fruiting were carried out over two consecutive growth seasons. These years were characterized by different weather conditions due to temperatures and rainfall events which influenced the chilling accumulation, blooming time and xylogenesis process. The onset of xylogenesis within flower buds was conditioned by summer temperatures and water availability. The two rootstocks commonly used in apricot, Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling, did not affect the flowering and fruit-set rate of the grafted cultivar. Nevertheless, differences in progressive differentiation of the secondary thickness of procambial cells in xylem vessels were observed.
M. Olszewski, B. Snyder and J. Pils

Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture, Temple University, 580 Meetinghouse Rd., Ambler, PA 19002. Director of Research and Development, Aquatrols Corporation, Paulsboro, NJ 08066.

Key words: Growing media, wetting agent, hydrophobicity, peat, bark, mix manufacturers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 178-182.

Abstract: Surfactant formulations consisting of proprietary blends containing sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend (ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P); sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend with polyethylene glycol addition (ACA3204-2a), and ethoxylated alkylphenol (ACA160) were tested for wettability of peat-based substrates and for relative phytotoxicity. Substrate incorporation rates used in this study were 116 mL m-3 (a low recommended rate), 232 ml m-3 (a moderate recommended rate), and 464 ml m-3 (a supra-optimal rate). After a third wetting cycle, those substrates incorporated with ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, or ACA160 at 232 ml m-3 had higher wettability ratings than the Pro-Mix HP control (Premier Horticulture Inc., Quakertown, PA). There were no differences in shoot dry weight (SDW) or visual root health rating (VRHR) among treatment groups of impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) compared to the control For pansy (Viola × wittrockiana), Pro-Mix-HP control-grown plants had higher SDW (0.8632 g shoot-1) than ACA3204-R at 464 mL·m-3 (SDW = 0.6266 g shoot-1) but SDWs for ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a and ACA160 were similar to the control at all rates. Compared to the control, pansy VRHRs declined at 464 ml m-3 for all surfactants except for ACA160. In general, higher rates of surfactant increased mean days to 50% germination (DX; an inverse measure of germination rate) compared to distilled water control for pansy but this effect was less pronounced for impatiens. There appeared to be a stimulatory seedling effect on mean pansy root length for ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P (rates = 300-1200 ppm) and for ACA3204-2a (rates = 600-1200 ppm). In conclusion, surfactant formulations ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a, and ACA160 were comparatively non-phytotoxic at moderate rates of substrate incorporation (mature plant growth) but laboratory seed germination was affected by low concentrations. ACA3204-R had similar wettability rating to that of ACA160 following the third wetting cycle. Further testing with additional plant species and substrates would aide in evaluating the usefulness of newer horticultural surfactants.
J. Dolezalova, M. Koudela, L. Augustinova and M. Dubsk

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Pr?honice, Czech Republic.

Key words: Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L., seedling, growth, water deficit, brassinolide, vegetable, stimulant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 183-186.

Abstract: Water deficit is one of the most adverse factors for plant growth and productivity. The experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of synthetic brassinolide analogue at concentrations 100 nmol.L-1 , 1 nmol.L-1 , 0.01 nmol.L-1 and 0 nmol.L-1 on lettce seedling grown at two moisture levels (reduced, control). The plants were cultivated in growth chamber under day / night temperature of 20 oC/15 oC. The total quantities of irrigation water during the experiment: reduced - 28 mm; control - 39 mm. The seedlings of two butter head lettuce cultivars (cv. Mars and cv. Marsalus) were sprayed to foliage at juvenile stage of growth. The plant parameters (length, fresh weight of shoots and roots) and dry matter content were measured on 21st and 28th day after sowing. Significantly higher values of the average fresh weight and length of aboveground part and roots were measured on 28th day for the cultivar Marsalus treated with brassinosteroide analogue at concentration 1 nmol.L-1 in conditions with reduced irrigation. The results showed that treatment of plants in the initial stage of the development with 1 nmol.L-1 solution can be used to limit the consequences of reduced moisture conditions. Prior to use the most effective concentration should be taken into account which parameter of plant is expected to be changed and also the varying sensitivity of the cultivars to the treatment.
Kirath Singh, Gyanalok Das, Kundansingh R Jadhao, Gyana Ranjan Rout

Department of Agril. Biotechnology,College of Agriculture, AICRP Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 3, Odisha,

Key words: Piper spp, Piperaceae, HPTLC analysis, Piperine content, ISSR marker, genetic diversity analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 187-194.

Abstract: Phytochemical and molecular characterization of Piper species was investigated. There was a wide variation of the active compounds present in leaf and fruits of different Piper species/accessions. Among the two active compounds, piperine-1 content was more in P. chaba fruit and Piperine -2 in P. nigrum fruit as compared with other species. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker was also used to analyze the genetic variation between the species / accession of Piper species. The phylogenetic analysis generated by ISSR marker was divided into two major groups with 47% similarity. First major group is only one species (i.e. Piper spp. Accession -1) and also morphologically distinct from other seven species. The second groups are divided into two minor groups. Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga are grouped together with 100 % similarity at genetic level, whereas, Piper betle var. Utkal Sudhama having 97 % similarity with Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga. Both phytochemical and molecular marker was showed significant variation among and between species/accessions. This study will help for the breeding program in Piper .
Ustun Sahin, Yasemin Kuslu, Fatih M. Kiziloglu and Talip Cakmakci

Ataturk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. Yuzuncu Y?l University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, 65080, Van, Turkey.

Key words: Antioxidant activity, marketable yield, mineral content, total phenolics, water productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 195-202.

Abstract: Water stress under reduced irrigation conditions affect plant physiology and hence yield and crop quality. Moreover, high altitude climatic conditions can significantly influence plant physiology. Therefore, a two year field study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation quantities on plant growth (leaf number, stem diameter, plant diameter and height), marketable yield, water use and crop quality attributes (mineral content, total phenolics and antioxidant activity) of drip-irrigated lettuce in a semi-arid region with a high altitude. A randomized complete block design was used for testing of different irrigation quantities replicated three times. Different irrigation quantities were adjusted considering 100 (I1), 85 (I2) and 70% (I3) of evaporated water from a Class A pan. Lettuce evapotranspiration was the highest in the I1 treatment (214.1 mm) considering the two year average values. Therefore, the I1 treatment provided the maximum growth and marketable yield (2.17 kg m-2). Water use efficiency was also the highest in the I1 treatment (10.2 kg m-3) because the lettuce yield decreased significantly with the decreasing irrigation quantity. However, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in lettuce leaves were the highest in the I3 treatment. Moreover, I2 and I3 treatments provided higher mineral contents. While the potassium content in leaves was the most abundant among macro minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Na), manganese content was the highest among micro minerals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and B). It could be said that lettuce can be irrigated with less irrigation quantities for obtaining higher mineral contents, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. This application can also provide water saving but cannot induce water productivity.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Christiane de Savigny

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1

Key words: Fruit composition, soil texture, GPS, GIS, precision viticulture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 100-122.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that soil texture would play a minor role in the determination of yield components, fruit composition, and wine sensory attributes of Chardonnay (i.e. the terroir effect), and that vine size, crop size and associated fruit environment would play the major roles. Five Chardonnay vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, Canada were chosen for study. These vineyards were located on sites with heterogeneous soil types to allow study of the impact upon yield, fruit composition and wine sensory attributes of: 1. Soil texture with mesoclimate kept constant; 2. The comparative magnitude of effects of soil texture and vine vigor. Vineyard blocks were delineated using global positioning systems (GPS), and a series of 72 to 162 data vines per site were geo-located within a sampling grid imposed on each vineyard block. Data were collected on soil texture, soil composition, tissue elemental composition, vine performance (yield components and weight of cane prunings), and fruit composition. These variables were mapped using geographical information systems (GIS) software and relationships between them were elucidated. Soil texture and composition were occasionally correlated to yield components and fruit composition but often these relationships were site-specific. Spatial relationships were common between % sand and clay, vine size, yield, berry weight, soluble solids (Brix), and titratable acidity (TA); however, relationships were both vineyard and vintage dependent. Several spatial relationships were apparent as well between vine size, yield, Brix, TA, and various soil/petiole composition variables, including organic matter, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil/petiole N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and B. Spatial relationships between yield, berry weight, berry composition, vine size, and several soil physical variables suggest a likely soil basis to the so-called 'terroir effect'. Vine size, yield, and berry weight were stable temporally within individual vineyards despite differences in annual climatic conditions. Soil texture (% sand) was frequently associated with high vine size, yield, and berry weight. Vine size directly correlated with berry weight. TA was often correlated with vine size. Soil composition had little relationship to petiole composition, fruit composition or yield except in a few specific cases, e.g., between pH and soil K.
Yanbin Hua, Baotong Yang, Xin-Gen Zhou, Jun Zhao and Liulin Li

College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University System, Bea

Key words: Fruit bagging, overrunning clutch, self-locking, paper bag with rubber bands and plastic rings

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 123-127.

Abstract: Bagging fruit on the trees in the orchard is a challenge to the fruit industry in China and many other countries due to the heavy labor requirement and low efficiency of the current fruit bagging methods. In this study, we developed a novel semi-automatic apparatus for bagging fruits to overcome these disadvantages. This apparatus adopts a mechanism similar to 'overrunning clutch' using the self-locking principle between nut and bolt to achieve the paper bags being progressively delivered by a screwed pipe and slid out individually. Such apparatus is of simplicity in design and efficiency in operation with a low cost. It does not require a battery or any of other sources of power to complete the process. This article describes the design and operation procedure of this apparatus in details. To our knowledge, this is the first apparatus to complete the fruit bagging process using the paper bags with rubber bands and plastic rings based on the new mechanism of operation.
N. Bumgarner and J. Buck

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, 37996. Formerly of Hort Americas, LLC, Euless, TX, USA.

Key words: Hydroponic, protected culture, light emitting diode, metal halide, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, greenhouse, high intensity discharge lighting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 128-134.

Abstract: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most common vegetable crops produced in greenhouses in the United States. Yet, it is difficult to maintain consistent production cycles in many areas due to seasonal variation in ambient light. This presents a challenge to profitability, so, many growers utilize supplemental lighting to provide more consistent production in greenhouse leafy crop operations. Research has frequently been carried out to investigate the relationships between light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouse lettuce crops to optimize production and profitability. Much of this work has been carried out using high intensity discharge lights (HID), specifically high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Currently, growers are considering whether light emitting diode (LED) technology can augment or replace HID lighting for greenhouse-grown vegetables. To improve knowledge in this area, this study evaluated LED and MH lighting in Bibb lettuce crop in the Midwestern United States during low light seasons in 2014. Three lighting treatments were compared: 1) a naturally lighted control, 2) supplemental MH lighting, and 3) supplemental LED lighting. Three sequential runs comparing the three lighting treatments were carried out between January and April of 2014. At the conclusion of each run, fresh shoot weight for all plants was measured along with a chlorophyll content index and a subjective tipburn rating. Supplemental lighting increased biomass over naturally-lighted controls by 194%, 104%, and 39% in MH and 253%, 165%, and 55% in LED in runs one, two, and three, respectively across the two cultivars. Differences in the chlorophyll content index and tipburn rating were also observed in lettuce under both supplemental lighting treatments when compared to the naturally lighted control. This study illustrates that supplemental lighting can improve greenhouse lettuce yield during low light seasons, but suggests growers implementing supplemental lighting should carefully monitor and manage crop quality.
R. Khajehyar, E. Fallahi and M. Rahemi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University of Idaho Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA.

Key words: Jasmonic acid, polyamines, chilling injury, citrus, cold storage.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 135-137.

Abstract: Chilling injury is one of the most important problems of tropical and subtropical fruits during storage that can occur if the temperature falls below 5 oC. Polyamines and methyl jasmonate (MJ) are believed to prevent and inhibit chilling injury (CI) during storage. In order to find a suitable treatment to reduce CI of oranges (Citrus sinensis) during cold storage, a research was conducted with two concentrations of MJ and two concentrations of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) (1 and 1.5 mgL-1), applied as pre-storage treatments and fruits were stored at 2 oC for 1.5 months. Application of MJ and PAs reduced percentages of CI, decay, pitting, physiological decay (PHD), ion leakage, potassium leakage, and weight loss (WL) and firmness in the fruit as compared to control after the storage period. Put at 1 mgL-1 had significantly lower percentage ion leakage and pH although CI in this treatment was similar to other treatments. Fruit juice density was not affected by any of the treatments.
Abdul J. Cheruth, Khadija I.M. Ramadhan and Shyam S. Kurup

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Key words: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), salinity, morphology, pigments, physiology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 138-140.

Abstract: Salinity represents an increasing threat to agricultural production in every region of the world. The objective of this investigation was to determine ameliorative effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on salt stressed lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in terms of growth, pigments and biochemical contents. The treatments were divided into 4 sections: control, 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl +5mM CaCl2 and 5mM CaCl2 alone. NaCl and CaCl2 stress decreased lettuce plant root and stem length, number of leaves and fresh weight versus the control. NaCl combined with CaCl2 increased these parameters versus treatments with NaCl or CaCl2 alone. Salt stress reduced the shoot and root fresh weight. The roots showed slightly increased growth under salinity, but after the treatment with CaCl2 the plants were normal. The pigment chlorophyll showed a diminishing trend in NaCl stressed plants, but it increased with CaCl2 application. The chlorophyll content increased in all plants with age. There was a slight decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents with NaCl treated plants. CaCl2 also showed decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, but it was still higher than that of NaCl treated plants. Proline and phenol contents increased in lettuce plants under treatment with NaCl and CaCl2 when compared to the control. From these results, it can be concluded that the addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed lettuce plants have a significant role in partial alleviation of salinity stress. Our results indicated that the cultivation of vegetable plants like lettuce in saline areas would be possible with supplemental calcium application.
M.A. Hegazi and M.M.S. Metwaly

Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-sheikh University, 33516, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Seashore Paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum, late season nutrition, cold wear.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 141-147.

Abstract: The present research was conducted on Kafer El-Sheikh University garden turfgrass during the winter season (November-May) of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the possibility of improving cold tolerance of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turfgrass during late season through either nutrition by compost alone or in combination with foliar application of potassium, silicon, iron or calcium separately. Compost was applied to all area except control on 1st November of each season at 10m3/feddan (2.38kg/m2). Aqueous solutions containing the recommended dose of each element plus 0.1% Tween 20 as a wetting agent were sprayed on the above ground parts until runoff, twice a month. The results showed that compost and Fe combination followed by compost and K2SO4 recorded the best results for most growth and anatomical measurements. The least growth values were observed from the compost alone or in combination with silicon and control treatments.

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