Abstract: Fresh carrot juice is one of the widely consumed vegetable juice during winter season. Recipe for ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was standardized with the addition of sugar, salt and ginger on the basis of sensory evaluation. The effect of processing and storage on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was studied. Among the various combinations prepared, 4% sugar, 0.6% salt, 0.8% ginger and 0.05% citric acid showed highest overall acceptability on the basis of sensory scores and was chosen for further analysis. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH assay. During processing, significant losses were found in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and carrot ginger juice. The study revealed that carrot ginger juice was found to retain more antioxidant activity compared to control juice due to addition of ginger. Storage of six months had no significant effect on TSS and acidity of processed carrot juices. However, storage led to significant decrease in bioactive compounds and thus decreased antioxidant activity of carrot products.
Philip M.P. Mornya and Fangyun Cheng
Center for National Flower Engineering Research, College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing-100083, China. School of Forestry and Horticulture, Njala University, Sierra Leone, West Africa.
Key words: Bud dormancy, carbohydrates, plant hormone, temperature, tree peony
Abstract: The trial to investigate hormonal and sugar changes in tree peony buds associated with dormancy was conducted in the field at the Beijing Forestry University Experimental Site in China during autumn, winter and spring seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011), the periods of dormancy development and release. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. The hormone and sugar levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and spectrophotometer, respectively. Winter temperature accumulated abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars in tree peony buds which most likely induced dormancy. Spring temperature, on the other hand, degraded ABA and sugars, and accumulated gibberellic acid (GA3) that possibly released dormancy in tree peony buds indicating that environmental temperature was the key regulator of hormone and sugar levels that influenced bud dormancy and growth. The results suggest that accumulation of ABA, GA3 and sugars in buds during dormancy or bud-break stage appears to be directly related to the degree of temperature experienced at that stage. While ABA and sugar accumulated with decreasing temperature, GA3 accumulated with increasing temperature. It is likely that the reduction of ABA and sugars played an important role in bud dormancy release or alteration in bud growth of tree peonies. Seasonal patterns of sucrose and starch were almost the same in buds of the tested tree peony cultivars which contradicts previous studies suggesting converse relationship in terms of accumulation in winter. However, seasonal accumulation of endogenous compositions varies with cultivar. Among the investigated cultivars, ?Luoyang Hong? (LH) not only accumulated less ABA, GA3 and sugars but also released bud dormancy earlier than the ?Zhao Fen? (ZF) and ?High Noon? (HN), suggesting that the level of these internal compositions in LH is less responsive to seasonal temperature change. The ability of buds to simultaneously accumulate ABA and sugar reserves while in dormant state may provide a significant adaptive advantage for peonies to survive the erratic climate, particularly in temperate regions, which could be one of the reasons for the geographically widespread of the genus Paeonia in the world.
A. Vitkova, A. Gavrilova, M. Delcheva, A. Trendafilova and M. Todorova
Department of Plant and Fungal Diversity and Resources, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria. Institute of Organic Chemistry with Ce
Key words: Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl., A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., medicinal plants, endemics, ex situ, biological productivity, flavonoids, tannins
Abstract: Guidelines for introduction and ex situ cultivation of species from genus Alchemilla, known by its curative properties for a variety of health disorders are presented for the first time. Subject of the study are the rare and protected Bulgarian species Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl. and A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., which showed high antioxidant activity in our recent research. Transplant material from natural populations grown in two live collections in the regions of Vitosha Mt. (1404 masl) and West Rhodopes Mt. (1500 masl) (Bulgaria) was used. The growth and development rate of the new plants was assessed according to the method of phenological observations. Nine morphometrical indices were studied and the biological productivity of the species was determined in ex situ conditions. The quantities of flavonoids (calculated as % quercetin) and tannins (calculated as % pyrogallol) during the different phenological stages of ex situ plant development were assessed via spectrophotometric methods. Several differences between the species in the two experimental stations were summarized as dependent on the ecological conditions. All results of the study were used to elaborate methodological instruction for successful cultivation of the species in field conditions.
Ajay Kumar Upadhyay, Jagdev Sharma and J. Satisha
National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune ? 412 307, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting the productivity of the grapes in India. The response of vines differs under such conditions. Dogridge rootstock though introduced in the country to deal with salinity and moisture stress, tolerance was found lacking under such conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate the salinity tolerance of Thompson Seedless vines raised on different rootstocks and on own root at two salinity levels viz., 2 and 4 dSm-1. The rootstocks included were 110R and 1103P from Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris parentage, Dogridge(Vitis champinii) and St. George (Rupestris du Lot). The irrigation water salinity was manipulated using sodium chloride. Thompson Seedless vines raised on 110R and 1103P rootstocks did not show marginal necrosis and leaf blackening symptoms at both salinity levels whereas other rootstocks showed mild to severe symptoms. All stock-scion combinations recorded significantly higher bunch weight than own rooted vines. Highest yield was recorded in the 1103P rootstock at both the salinity levels which was on par with 110R rootstock. Significant differences existed between rootstocks and own root at both the salinity levels with the lowest mean petiole Na values recorded in case of vines raised on 110R. High content of Na in vine tissues (>1.0%) grafted on Dogridge rootstock suggest that this rootstock could not exclude Na under saline irrigation. Though below the threshold levels, at 4 dSm-1 level, Dogridge rootstock recorded significantly higher chloride in petioles than other rootstocks. The sodium ?potassium ratios in leaf blade and petiole were least in case of 110R and 1103P rootstocks whereas higher values were recorded in case of other stock-scion combinations and on own roots. Highest accumulation of sodium in vegetative parts was recorded in vines grafted on Dogridge whereas the rootstocks 110R and 1103P, accumulated highest K, Mg, Ca and P.
Abstract: The present study, aimed at advancing Alphonso mango harvest season through manipulation in time of soil application of paclobutrazol (PBZ) [soil application on 15th of May, June, July, and August]; foliar spray of KNO3 (3%) [August and September], was conducted during 2010 to 2012 cropping seasons in red lateritic rocky soil of Konkan (Maharashtra, India). Results of individual years and mean for three years revealed that significant earliness in flowering (85.4 day) and advancement in harvesting (82 day) was achieved with the application of PBZ on 15th May. PBZ application on 15th June was relatively less effective in inducing early flowering (56 day) and harvesting (69 days). However, the greater extent of flowering (72.23 %) and fruit yield per tree (40.72 kg/tree) were recorded with PBZ applied at recommended time i.e., on 15th August. Individual fruit weight was higher in KNO3 sprayed tree in the months of August (268g) and September (265.5 g), whereas fruit T.S.S. was higher (19.37 oBrix.) in trees receiving PBZ on 15th August. The findings of study indicated huge potential for realizing about 5-6 times higher returns from Alphonso produced in February-March months as compared to May harvest.
K.T. Kareem, B.O. Odu, V.C. Umeh, V.A. Chikaleke, K.E. Oke, O. Arogundade, A.O. Adediji and O.O. Odedara
National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan
Abstract: A survey was conducted on a 33 year old orchard to determine the incidence and distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus in different citrus cultivars at National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Nigeria. Compound enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Compound ELISA) was used to detect the presence of CTV in the citrus leaf samples. The results revealed 100% incidence in all the varieties tested. Of all the sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) budded on Cleopatra mandarin rootstock, Washington Navel had the least plant survival of 2 out of the 12 planted with a canopy spread of 7.91 m and fruit yield of 7.00 kg per tree. It also had the highest mean ELISA reading with an absorbance (A405nm) of 3.4780 while Bende had the least titre of 3.2158 with plant survival of 12 out of the 12 trees planted and fruit yield of 57.70 kg per tree. No significant difference was observed in Agege variety of sweet orange budded on different rootstock types and their ELISA values ranged from 3.283 to 3.384. Among the seedling trees, White grape recorded the highest mean ELISA value of 3.4698 while the average ELISA values of the other seedling trees were not statistically different from each other with their titres ranging between 3.2712 and 3.3615. The results establish the pandemic status of CTV in NIHORT orchard. The use of resistant cultivars and cross protection are recommended as effective, economical and environment-friendly means of preventing the incidence and spread of CTV.
Anant Bahadur, Amit Kumar Singh and S.N.S. Chaurasia
Division of Vegetable Production, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 221 305, India.
Key words: Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus, drought stress, organic mulch, gas exchange, water use efficiency
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on okra by imposing water deficit and using organic mulches during spring-summer of 2009 and 2010 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. The treatments comprised of three levels of irrigation scheduling (5, 10 and 15 days intervals) and three level of mulch (pea straw, dry grass mulch at 7.0 t ha-1 and ?no mulch?). Significant differences on physiological and yield attributes were observed in various irrigation treatments and organic mulches. Organic mulching enhanced the stomatal conductance and photosynthesis by 127-154% and 50-59%, respectively over no mulch. Similarly, there was 16 and 33% reduction in photosynthesis, and 33 and 36% reduction in stomatal conductance in 15 days irrigation scheduled plant as comparison to 5 and 10 days schedule, respectively. The maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was registered with irrigation at 10 days coupled with organic mulching. Similarly, irrigation at 5 or 10 days recorded 40.3 and 45.6% higher pod yield, respectively over longer intervals. Significantly higher yield was noticed in both organic mulches over no mulch. Maximum pod yields (103.55 and 116.73 q ha-1) were recorded respectively, with irrigation at 10 days interval and mulching either with pea straw or dry grass. Mulched plants exhibited very proportional allocation of drymatter in various plant parts. The maximum water use efficiency of 351.60 kg ha-1cm-1 was recorded in treatment comprising irrigation scheduling at 10 days interval and mulching with dry grass.
R.M. Sharma, A.K. Singh, Sushil Sharma, F.A. Masoodiand Uma Shankar
Division of Fruit Science, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu-180009. Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Division of Agricultural Engineering, S.K. University o
Abstract: Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruits and its cultivated area has increased significantly during the last few years in subtropics but the margin of profit is reduced due to lack of runnering caused by high temperature and high light intensity. The objective of the study was to exploit the possibility of its regeneration in subtropical areas by moderating the effect of high temperature and light intensity through the use of shading nets. Of the 4 shading levels, use of 50% shading tended to produce highest number of runners in Chandler (11.44/plant) and Oso Grand (16.33/plant) cultivars. The runners produced under shadings (25-75%) were significantly vigorous in respect of number of leaves (8.38/plant), leaf area (69.70 cm2), crown diameter (13.49 mm) and root length (11.26 cm) but the highest root dry matter (6.37 g/plant) was observed in the runners produced under 0% shading. In the plants regenerated under subtropical conditions, shadings resulted higher survival rate, early cropping, longer picking duration, higher fruit yield and average fruit weight than the plants raised under 0 % shedding in subtropical as well as temperate areas. The use of 50% shading treatment during regeneration tended to increase the picking duration (44.70 days), fruit yield (278.08 g/plant) and fruit weight (14.22g) of strawberries. The runners of Chandler excelled over Oso Grand statistically in respect of picking duration and fruit yield.
Barikara Umesha, S. Santhana Bosu, K.P. Rema and A.R. Murumkar
College of Agricultural Engineering & Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore-03, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrisur (Kerala), Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2009 to 2010 to study the effect of drip irrigation with fertigation in soil-less culture under controlled cultivation for Tomato. The highest yield per plant (2.16 kg/plant) and yield per hectare (112 t/ha) was registered in Peat:Vermicompost (T4F2 ) and the lowest yield per plant was recorded in Coir pith :Vermicompost (T2F1) (1.07 kg and 55.48 t/ha) under polyhouse condition. The highest water use efficiency (1972.87 kg/ha cm) was obtained in T4F2 and the lowest was obtained in T2F2 (977.30 kg/ha cm) in poly house. The highest N fertilizer use efficiency (700 kg/ ha.kg of N) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency was noted in T2F1 (277 kg/ ha kg of N). The highest K fertilizer use efficiency (560 kg/ ha.kg of K) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency (222 kg /ha.kg of K) was noted in T2F1. The highest benefit cost ratio 2.33 was recorded in T4F2. The results of the study indicated that the controlled cultivation of tomato in soil-less media has more benefits, in terms of yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency, and benefit cost ratio.
Krishna Ji, S.S. Solankey, Sanjay Kumar and Diwaker Singh
Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 221 305. Department of Horticulture, Udai Pratap Autonmous College, Varanasi 221 002.
Abstract: Eight chilli genotypes including four lines (CCA-4261, CCA-4257, IC-395318 and VR-339) and four testers (DSL-2, EC-519636, EC-566320 and Pusa Jwala) were crossed to obtain 16 F1 hybrids. The lines (females) included three cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (CCA-4261, CCA-4257 and IC-395318) and one fertile line (VR-339). The 24 genotypes (4 lines, 4 testers and 16 resulting F1 hybrids) were evaluated for growth and yield contributing traits. Correlation studies indicated that yield per plant was significantly correlated with fruit weight, total fruit weight per plant and plant height at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, whereas, it was positively associated with fruit length, fruit diameter and number of fruits per plant. The lines CCA-4261, CCA-4257, VR-339 and EC-566320 were grouped under cluster I while IC-395318 and EC-519636 grouped in cluster II. Analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that lines and testers exhibit adequate variation for all the characters. Highest phenotypic coefficients of variability obtained from fruit yield and the lowest from fruit diameter. Based on per se performance, heterosis and SCAeffects, the hybrids IC-395318 ? EC-566320, CCA-4261 ? EC-519636 and VR-339 ? EC-566320 were found superior hybrids for yield and its attributing traits. These elite hybrids may be tested for yield and other quality traits under different agro-climatic conditions for commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour.
Sharmistha Naik and Vishal Rana
Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry. Nauni, Solan-173230.
Key words: Artificial pollination, liquid pollen extenders, kiwifruit, agar, gelatin, arrowroot powder, sago powder, gum Acacia, fruit set, fruit weight
Abstract: Artificial pollination using liquid pollen extenders is a labour saving method as well as it also increases the efficiency of pollination. An attempt was made to develop effective and relatively cheap pollen extenders for spray pollination and also to compare different pollination methods. Different liquid pollen extenders containing basal sucrose solution (BSS) (0.2M sucrose) plus 0.1% agar/0.01% gelrite/0.9% sago powder/1.4% arrowroot powder/1.0% gelatin/0.005% gum Acacia were evaluated for spray pollination. Quantity of pollen used in all these extenders was 0.25 g per 50 mL of extender. Maximum fruit set (89.63%) and A-grade fruits weighing > 80g (10.22%) were recorded in BSS + 1.4% arrowroot powder. Positive correlations were observed between fruit weight x fruit length (r=0.882), fruit weight x fruit diameter (r =0.852) and fruit weight x number of seeds/fruit (r=0.980). Regression equations showing relationships between fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter and number of seeds/fruit were computed and were found to be highly reliable. Spray pollination using automizer was observed to be more than two times efficient as compared to hand pollination. The pollination efficiency would further be improved using pressure sprayers and/or tractor mounted sprayers.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, R.P. Singh and Vineeta Singh
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Box No. 01, P.O. Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221305, Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi-221002, Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science
Key words: Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, early blight, Alternaria solani, percent disease incidence (PDI),area under disease progress curve (AUDPC)
Abstract: Experiments were conducted for three years to study the interaction between tomato genotypes and environment against early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani. Fifty one genetically diverse genotypes of tomato were screened in field conditions against early blight in Rabi season of 2006-09 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. Results revealed thatgenotypeLA-3980 was resistant while, EC-520058, EC-520060, EC-520061, EC-520070, EC-521080, WIR-3928 andH-88-78-1 were highly resistant. All the resistant and highly resistant lines belong to wild species except H-88-78-1 and LA-3980. Only three genotypes, EC-520061, EC-520070 and H-88-78-1 were stable in each environment for resistance to early blight disease in tomato. Relationship of environment with resistant genotypes indicated that EC-520061, EC-520070, WIR-3928 and H-88-78-1 had low regression coefficient (b<1) and low deviation from regression (sd2=<1) than others (b= >1and sd2=>1) indicating stable and adaptive genotypic resistance to early blight. Hence these genotypes may be used as donor parent for development of early blight resistant/ tolerant varieties / lines.
K. Habib, N. Ahmad, P.A. Sofi, S.H. Khan and T. Shafi
Division of Vegetable Sciences, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, 191121, J&K. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Old Airport Road, Srinagar, J&K. Regional Research Station, SKUAST-K, Wadura Sopore, 193201, J&K, India
Abstract: Ten diverse broccoli genotypes selected from germplasm collection maintained at SKUAST-K, Shalimar were crossed in all possible combinations excluding reciprocals. Forty five F1 crosses (excluding reciprocals) were generated through a 10 x 10 diallel mating design. Each genotype was represented by two rows of ten plants each at spacing 60 x 45 cm in a Randomized Block Design with 3 replications in Rabi 2008 and 2009. Data was recorded on five randomly selected competitive plants from each replication for 16 metric traits. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was moderate to high in lateral head yield, lateral head number, main head yield and total carotenoids and low for days to central head harvest, days to central head initiation, plant height and plant spread. Broad sense heritability was comparatively moderate to higher in plant height, head length, days to central head initiation, lateral head yield, main head yield,. total head yield and total carotenoids content but low for ascorbic acid content, plant spread and dry matter content. Genetic advance was high (> 20.%) for lateral head yield and total carotenoids content while it was low (<5%) for ascorbic acid, peduncle length and dry matter content. Among various traits, the plant spread, head diameter, leaf number, leaf area, lateral head number, main head yield and lateral head yield possessed positive correlation with total yield at genotypic level while plant height, head length, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids had negative correlation with total yield at genotypic level. However, main head yield, lateral head yield, head diameter and lateral head number had highly significant positive correlation with total head yield.
A. Venkatram and A. Bhagwan
College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Hyderabad - 500030, A.P, India. Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, Medak - 502110, A.P, India.
Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of various concentrations of antioxidants [500, 1000 ppm of sodium benzoate (SB) and ascorbic acid (AA) and 50, 100 ppm of benzyl adenine (BA)] on storage life of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) fruits of cv ?Balanagar?, stored at 15?1?C, was studied at Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, A.P., India. Various physico-chemical parameters like physiological loss in weight (PLW), firmness, spoilage, ripening, days taken for ripening, storage life, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid were estimated at an interval of 2 days during storage. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) recorded the lower PLW than untreated fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas maximum days taken for ripening was recorded with BA (50 and 100 ppm) and SB 500 ppm. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) or SB (500 ppm) or AA (1000 ppm) recorded lower spoilage and correspondingly increased the storage life up to 11, 10.5 and 10 days, respectively, whereas, untreated fruits recorded a storage life of 8.5 days only. The lowest TSS and the highest ascorbic acid were recorded with fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas untreated fruits recorded highest TSS and the lowest ascorbic acid. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that postharvest application of BA (100 or 50 ppm) increases the storage life of custard apple by 29.41 per cent (2.5 days) over untreated fruits.
P. Suresh Kumar, V.K. Choudhary, M. Kanwat and A. Sangeetha
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, AP Centre, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh-791 101. India
Abstract: A field trial was laid out on 11 year old Khasi mandarin trees with 12 different doses organic sources (20, 40, 60, 80 kg each of FYM, pig manure and poultry manure) and three different doses (200, 100, 100; 400, 200, 200; and 600, 400, 400 g NPK / tree ) of inorganic fertilizers to evaluate the effect of different nutrient sources on growth and yield performance of Khasi mandarin. Highest number of fruits per plant was recorded with 600, 400, 400 g NPK application. Plant height (6.96 m), crop canopy (5.7 x 5.6 m) and yield were also highest with full dose of NPK. However, stem diameter (86.8 cm) was highest with the application of 80 kg pig manure. The physico-chemical characteristics of fruits showed that peel weight (32.14 g) and thickness (4.2 mm) were more with full dose application of NPK, while segment weight (87.52 g) and fruit weight (120.4 g) were highest with 80 kg application of FYM. Inorganic fertilizers other than reducing TSS have profound effect on the increase in acidity which in turn reduced the TSS: acid ratio. It can be concluded that 80 kg FYM or 80 kg pig manure application would replenish the depleted nutrients on the khasi mandarin growing soils and maintain soil health.