SELECTED CONTENTS

 Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year 1999

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Arora, P K; Nirmal Kaur; Batra, R C; Mehrotra, N K

Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar 152116, India.

Key words: varieties, cultivars, fruits, phenols, sugars, quality, insect pests, pest resistance, ascorbic acid, fruit crops, control, agricultural entomology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 101-102.

Abstract: Physicochemical characteristics of fruits of eight ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) varieties, Chhuhara, Gola, Elaichi, Kaithli, Nazuk, Sanaur 2, Umran and ZG-2 in relation to fruit fly infestation were studied at Abohar. Fruit fly (Carpomya vesuviana) infestation was positively correlated with fruit weight, pulp-stone ratio, total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars, whereas, it was negatively correlated to acidity, vitamin C [ascorbic acid] and total phenols. The varieties high in pulp content, TSS, total sugars, low acidity, vitamin C and total phenols were highly susceptible to fruit fly attack. The most resistance varieties were Umran (49% incidence), Gola (40%) and ZG-2 (33%).
Sharma, J N; Josan, J S; Thind, S K; Arora, P K

Regional Fruit Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Abohar 152116, India.

Key words: cultivars, mangoes, evaluation, fruits, quality, yields, yield components, variety trials, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 103-104.

Abstract: Four mango cultivars, Dashehari, Langra, Mallika and Amrapali, were introduced from different sources and grown at the Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar (Punjab), during 1982-83 to allow evaluation under arid-irrigated conditions. Langra was most vigorous followed by Mallika, Dashehari and Amrapali. Dashehari fruits had the highest total soluble solids content (TSS; 20.04%), reducing sugar content (3.87%), TSS/acid ratio (75.42) and sugar/acid ratio (14.33) with an average fruit yield of 60.22 kg/tree. Fruits of Dashehari and Langra matured during the second week of July whereas those of Mallika and Amrapali matured in the third week of July. On the basis of yield and quality observed under Abohar conditions, cultivation of Dashehari, Langra, Mallika and Amrapali cultivars are recommended for cultivation in the arid-irrigated region of Punjab.
Mohammed, M; Wickham, L

Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Key words: modified atmosphere storage, ethanol, packing, fruits, storage, ethephon, ripening, quality, plant growth regulators, responses, keeping quality, storage life, fruit crops, ethylene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: S. cuminii [S. cumini] fruits were dipped in Ethrel [ethephon] or ethanol and stored at 10 or 30 degrees C for up to 12 days in either sealed low density (LDPE) or high density polyethylene bags (HDPE) or paper bags (PB). Fruits were evaluated for degrees of deastringency and other quality related changes. Ethanol-treated fruits stored in polyethylene bags at 10 degrees C were completely deastringent after 9 days compared with Ethrel-treated fruits over the same period which remained astringent throughout. Untreated control fruits stored at 10 degrees C in paper bags or polyethylene bags showed no changes in astringency and senesced rapidly after 3 and 6 days, respectively. Fruits stored at 30 degrees C, regardless of the packaging or dip treatments, succumbed to 100% decay after 3 days. Despite having the same astringency ratings, ethanol-treated fruits stored in LDPE bags at 10 degrees C were preferred to those stored in HDPE bags based on the lower incidence of decay in the former compared with the latter.
Pal, R K; Thomas, R J; Sangeeta Gupta; Lal, B; Singh, N M

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.

Key words: hydrogen peroxide, mangoes, carotenoids, fruits, heat treatment, quarantine, reducing sugars, ripening, sugars, toxicity, quality, plant physiology, colour, treatment, organoleptic traits, plant composition, chemical composition, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 108-111.

Abstract: Physiological and physico-chemical changes in mango cv. Baneshan fruits in response to vapour heat treatment (VHT) were compared to those observed after treatment with a hydrogen peroxide based chemical (Virosil-Agro; VS). VHT is the accepted quarantine treatment for export of mangoes. VS is an eco-friendly and biodegradable chemical having little residual toxicity containing H2O2 and Ag2+. VST had antisenescence effects. VHT enhanced ripening during 14 days of storage compared with the control. VHT resulted in better marketability of fruits due to uniform peel colour development.
Verma, A K; Singh, M D

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow 227107, India.

Key words: mangoes, mechanical properties, deformation, fruits, quality, ripening, plant development, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 112-114.

Abstract: An experiment on force deformation was conducted on mature fruits of mango cv. Dashehari (collected from India). The first yield point in a sample was observed at 0.30 kN with a rupture point at 0.48 kN. Results indicated elastic behaviour up to 0.30 kN force, plastic beyond 0.48 kN and elastoplastic in between 0.30 and 0.48 kN. Strain energy required for first yield point was calculated using E = F*D/2, where E = strain energy, F = force applied and D = deformation. The energy required for the first yield point was calculated as 0.084 Nm and second rupture point was at 0.25 Nm strain energy.
Yadav, V K; Singh, H K

Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj 224229, U.P., India.

Key words: fruits, triadimefon, fungicides, disease control, storage decay, thiophanate methyl, quality, storage life, keeping quality, calcium nitrate, calcium, nitrogen, plant composition, chemical composition, plant diseases, plant pathogens, plant pathogenic fun

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 118-121.

Abstract: The effects of preharvest sprays of 1% calcium nitrate, 0.1% Topsin-M [thiophanate-methyl], 0.1% Bayleton [triadimefon] and their combinations on the storage quality of fruits of E. officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica] cv. NA-6 were investigated. Treatment with 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Topsin-M was the best followed by 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Bayleton and 1% calcium nitrate. The lowest weight loss (11.09%) and decay loss (14.43%) were observed in fruits given 2 pre-harvest sprays of 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Topsin-M; this treatment prolonged shelf-life to up to 20 days compared with 10 days in the control at ambient temperature. Calcium nitrate-treated fruits had higher concentrations of Ca than control fruits. Treatment with Topsin-M and Bayleton controlled Penicillium oxalicum for 10 days and Aspergillus niger for 20 days and extended shelf life.
Singh, D B; Suryanaryana, M A

Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair 744101, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

Key words: bananas, cultural methods, nitrogen fertilizers, crop yield, pseudostems, growth, plant development, fruit crops, fruits, small fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 122-124.

Abstract: The effect of N (50, 100, 150, 200 or 250 g/plant), applied all at once or in split doses (2-4 splits), on growth and yield of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish was investigated during 1994-97 at Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The best growth (height, girth of pseudostem and number of leaves) and bunch yield were observed following application of 200 g N/plant in 4 split doses (2, 4, 6 and 8 months after planting). Increasing N rate from 200 to 250 g/plant delayed flowering/fruiting and was not effective at further increasing bunch size.
Prasanta Das; Binita Hazarika

Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam, India.

Key words: chemical composition, mulches, mulching, plant residues, plastic film, quality, pineapples, polyethylene, rice, ascorbic acid, flowering, fruits, reducing sugars, sugars, fruit crops, small fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 125-127.

Abstract: Mulching promoted the quality of pineapples cv. Kew, grown in India. Good quality fruits were observed in the black polythene mulch and rice husk (2.5 and 5 cm thick) treatments. The best quality fruits were obtained in the black polythene (50\micro) mulch treatment where plants were mulched throughout the cropping period.
Rajan, S; Sinha, G C; Lal, B

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow 227107, India.

Key words: grafting, mangoes, forecasting, mathematical models, relative humidity, temperature, fruit crops, fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 128-130.

Abstract: Various models were developed to account for the effect of weather variables on the success of veneer grafting in mango under Lucknow conditions. The influence of weather parameters was described by the model: GS = 290.946 - 0.239 MA2 - 20.322 MI - 0.305 MI2 - 3.58 RH, where GS = veneer grafting success, MA = maximum temperature, MI = minimum temperature, RH = relative humidity, and RF = rainfall. The use of this model to forecast grafting success based on environmental conditions is discussed.
Maiti, C S; Nath, A; Sen, S K

Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Key words: medicinal plants, grafting, propagation, shoots, growth, plant development

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 131-132.

Abstract: The effect of grafting method (whip, splice or cleft grafting) on survival and growth was investigated for A. marmelos grown under West Bengal conditions, India, during the monsoon. The best method was whip grafting (70% success and the best shoot growth).
Sharma, R R; Goswami, A M; Saxena, S K; Anil Shukla

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.

Key words: mandarins, rootstocks, citranges, high density planting, fruit drop, fruits, seasonal variation, rootstock scion relationships, thinning, fruit crops, subtropical fruits, citrus fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 133-134.

Abstract: The effect of rootstock (Troyer citrange, Karna Khatta [Citrus karna] and Sohsarkar) on fruit drop was investigated for mandarins grown in high density plantings in India. Plants on all 3 rootstocks showed 2 distinct waves of drop (a very heavy drop in April-May and severe preharvest drop in September-October). Plants on Troyer citrange showed the lowest fruit drop in April-May and the highest pre-harvest fruit drop compared with the other rootstocks. Overall fruit drop was highest in Sohsarkar (86.41%) and lowest in Troyer citrange (69.79%).
Prabhat Srivastava; Chauhan, H S

Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Technology, Pantnagar 263145, U.P., India.

Key words: cultural methods, cabbages, irrigation, growth, canopy, climate, growth studies, leaf area, spacing, subsurface irrigation, subtropics, plant development, trickle irrigation, surface irrigation, crop yield, vegetables

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 135-136.

Abstract: The effects of different methods of irrigation (microsprinkler, drip [trickle] (emitter), drip (microtube) and surface irrigation) on growth of cabbages in India were investigated. Plants were grown at a spacing of 0.5 x 0.6 m. The largest plants with the highest number of leaves and greatest crop canopy were produced in the microsprinkler treatment.
Prabhat Srivastava; Chauhan, H S

Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Technology, Pantnagar 263145, U.P., India.

Key words: cultural methods, trickle irrigation, surface irrigation, crop yield, cabbages, irrigation, methodology, spacing, use efficiency, water use, water use efficiency, plant water relations, vegetables

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 137-138.

Abstract: The water use efficiencies of cabbages (cv. Golden Acre) irrigated via microsprinkler, drip [trickle], microtube or surface irrigation methods were determined in India. Cabbages were planted at a spacing of 0.5 x 0.6 m. The highest yield was obtained in the microsprinkler irrigation treatment (40.23 t/ha), followed by drip irrigation (38.97 t/ha), surface irrigation (33.76 t/ha) and microtube irrigation (32.54 t/ha). Water use efficiency was highest for drip irrigation, followed by microtube irrigation, microsprinkler irrigation and surface irrigation. Compared with surface irrigation, percentage water savings were 61.44, 59.28 and 36.82% for microtube, drip and microsprinkler methods, respectively.
Matoria, G R; Khandelwal, R C

Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur 313001, India.

Key words: fruits, heterosis, hybrids, quantitative traits, yield components, diallel analysis, specific combining ability, stability, general combining ability, cucurbit vegetables, vegetables

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 139-141.

Abstract: Combining ability and stability analysis for six traits was performed in 45 bitter gourd hybrids derived from a 10 x 10 diallel analysis. The analysis revealed that both additive as well as non-additive gene action were important for all the characters. However, non-additive gene action was predominant for all the traits, except for girth of fruits and number of seeds/fruits. BG-14 was observed to be the best general combiner for yield/vine and most of the other quantitative traits. Among the crosses, Udaipur Local x BG-14 and NBPGR/TCR-727 x Jaunpuri Long showed the highest SCA effects as well as stability in their performance making them suitable for a heterosis breeding programme.
Chandra, R; Sheo Govind; Desai, A R

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani, Meghalaya 793 103, India.

Key words: genotypes, turmeric, quality, yields, yield components, plant height, rhizomes, yield correlations, spice plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 142-144.

Abstract: Performance of twenty-five genotypes was studied at Barapani for three consecutive years. Among the 19 characters studied, weight of primary finger rhizome recorded the highest level of variability (38.94%) followed by number of primary and secondary finger rhizomes per clump. Plant height, length of leaf, and length, diameter and weight of primary finger rhizome, internodal distance of primary finger rhizome, and rhizome yield per hectare were significantly and positively associated with fresh rhizome yield per clump. A negative correlation between dry rhizome recovery and fresh rhizome yield per clump was observed. PCT 13, PCT 11, GL Puram and PCT 15 showed no significant differences and had higher yields, indicating their suitability for cultivation under mid hill conditions of Meghalaya. Lakadong had poor yields but had the highest curcumin (7.33%) content.
Mishra, H P

Department of Floriculture & Landscaping, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar 848125, India.

Key words: flowers, ornamental bulbs, plant development, planting, bulbs, planting date, flowering, ornamental plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 145-148.

Abstract: The effect of planting date (February-May) on growth and flowering of P. tuberosa was investigated during 1995-97 in Bihar, India. Early and late planting produced plants with poor flower and spike yields. Planting bulbs on 7 March followed by 22 March produced plants with a high number of long leaves/clump, thick and big spikes, and a high number of florets and spikes/unit area.
Dwivedi, S K; Padmanabh Dwivedi

School of Environmental Sciences, B.B. Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226 025, India.

Key words: guavas, reviews, soil solarization, symptoms, plant disease control, plant pathogens, plant pathogenic fungi, plant diseases, chemical control, fungal diseases, biological control, environmental factors, fruit crops, fruits, control, plant pathology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: A review of guava wilt (caused by Fusarium solani, F. longipes, F. moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi], F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia sp.) in India is given. A brief account of the economic importance of guava is followed by the occurrence and symptoms of the disease. The modes of infection, causal organisms, and environmental and chemical factors that guide the development of the disease have also been emphasised. The recent findings made to control the disease severity, including those by chemical and biological methods and soil solarization, are also reviewed.
Shu, Z H

Fengshan Tropical Horticultural Experiment Station, TARI, Fengshan, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan.

Key words: pollination, flowers, plant development, flowering, mangoes, anthers, dehiscence, sex ratio, temperature, cultivars, fruit crops, fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 79-83.

Abstract: The effect of 3 temperature regimes (31/25 (warm), 25/19 (moderate) and 19/13 degrees C (cool), day/night) on flowering and pollination in 4 mango cultivars (Haden, Irwin, Keitt and Local) was investigated in Taiwan. Compared with the moderate treatment, warm temperatures hastened growth rates of panicles and flowers, shortened flowering duration and life span of individual flowers, and decreased the number of hermaphrodite and male flowers. Warm temperatures increased the rates and percentages of anther dehiscence and pollination. In contrast, cool temperatures retarded the growth of panicles and flowers, extended flowering duration and life span of flowers, and increased the number of hermaphrodite and male flowers. Sex ratio was statistically not different among the 3 temperature treatments. The highest number of hermaphrodite flowers occurred during the first third of the flowering period. The highest number of male flowers occurred halfway through the flowering period.
Sant Ram

G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, U.P., India.

Key words: flowering, mangoes, abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins, differentiation, flowers, fruiting, plant development, plant growth regulators, cultural methods, gibberellins, inhibitors, paclobutrazol, productivity, pruning, steroids, urea, growth, endogenous gro

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 84-88.

Abstract: Studies were conducted on alternate bearer mango cv. Dashehari. Dashehari produced a major vegetative flush in March-April followed by 2 minor flushes in June-July and September-October. The major vegetative flush fruited, whereas the other 2 minor flushes did not. Shoots which fruited rarely produced a new vegetative flush soon after crop harvest and also did not flower and fruit in the following season. To promote vigour and productivity, such shoots were forced to produce vegetative growth soon after crop harvest by pruning and application of 1-2% urea. Such treatments failed to induce flowering and fruiting. The concentrations of endogenous growth regulators were determined in shoots. Shoot-tips contained 3 auxins, 8 gibberellins, 11 cytokinins, 11 steroids and an ABA-like inhibitor. High concentrations of auxins, inhibitors, cytokinins and steroids were observed in shoot-tips just prior to or during the period of flower bud differentiation, whereas low concentrations of gibberellins were observed. Gibber
Baghel, B S; Pandey, S K; Nema, B K

Department of Pomology and Fruit Preservation, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur 482004, India.

Key words: flowering, mangoes, flowers, light, cultural methods, sex, plastic film, covers, plant development, abnormal development, fruit crops, fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 89-90.

Abstract: The effect of coloured poly-covers (control, white, red, green, blue and yellow) on flowering of mango (cv. Sunderja) was studied during October 1996 to February 1997. Covering twigs with coloured poly-covers influenced flowering. The highest rates of flowering shoots, healthy panicles and hermaphrodite flowers, the longest panicles, and the highest numbers of branchlets/panicle and flowers/panicle were recorded in the red poly-cover treatment. This treatment was better than the control, white and yellow poly-cover treatments, but was at par with the other treatments. The lowest rate of floral malformation, the lowest incidence of male flowers and the lowest ratio of hermaphrodite to male flowers (1:3.05) were also observed in the red poly-cover treatment.
Singh, S K; Syamal, M M

Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.

Key words: plant growth regulators, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, roses, micropropagation, gibberellic acid, IBA, NAA, rooting, acclimatization, roots, ornamental woody plants, shoots, gibberellins, tissue culture, ornamental plants, auxins, cytokinins

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 91-93.

Abstract: A micropropagation method for roses cv. Sonia is presented. Shoot proliferation was best (70.3%) on MS [Murashige and Skoog] medium supplemented with BAP [benzyladenine] at 2 mg/litre + NAA at 0.1 mg/litre + GA3 at 0.01 mg/litre, with a proliferation of >5 microshoots per subculture. Efficient rooting was achieved on half-strength MS medium supplemented with IBA at 0.2 mg/litre + NAA at 0.1 mg/litre. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized for 3 weeks and planted out under field conditions with a survival of over 70%.
Sonali Dixit; Srivastava, D K

Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP, India.

Key words: cauliflowers, callus, cotyledons, explants, in vitro regeneration, kanamycin, in vitro selection, vegetables, biotechnology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 94-96.

Abstract: Kanamycin sensitivity studies were conducted to study the resistance level of kanamycin in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, cv. Pusa Snow Ball). Increasing doses of kanamycin (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/litre) were given to hypocotyl and cotyledon explants to determine a minimum concentration of kanamycin required for selection of putative transformed cells during transformation. Decreases in fresh weight in both cotyledon and hypocotyl tissues were observed with increasing in kanamycin concentration. Even 50 mg/litre kanamycin did not completely inhibit the growth but callus formation and shoot regeneration was affected. It is suggested that at least 20-30 mg/litre kanamycin would be necessary to select resistant transformants in callus and shoot cultures.
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Rajan, S

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow 227107, India.

Key words: deblossoming, defoliation, differentiation, guavas, emergence, flowers, buds, plant development, cultural methods, ringing, pruning, seasonal variation, cultivars, fruit crops, fruits

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 97-100.

Abstract: Complete removal of leaves, along with decapitation of shoots, promoted flower bud differentiation (FBD), while ringing with partial or complete defoliation along with decapitation of shoots did not promote FBD. Decapitation of leafy shoots also promoted FBD, increasing from 44 to 63% and 37 to 54% in Sardar and Allahabad Safeda, respectively. Defoliation of same age shoots (1-3 months old) at different times of the year influenced FBD. In many cases, defoliation did not promote flowering compared with controls. Principal component analysis revealed that the time of shoot emergence was the decisive factor for FBD in 1-, 2- and 3-month-old shoots. Defoliated shoots put forth terminal extension or axillary growth, while in undefoliated ones only terminal growth took place. There is a strong indication that in guava, leaves play a favourable role in flower bud formation.
Yadav, I S; Dinesh, M R

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Key words: mangoes, evaluation, dwarfing, plant height, fruits, plant morphology, plant breeding, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 1, pages 24-26.

Abstract: Nine mango [Mangifera indica] genotypes having dwarf stature were compared to the control Alphonso for morphological and fruit characteristics, in order to identify those with potential for use in breeding programmes. Varieties Kerala Dwarf and Janardhan Pasand were the most suitable for usage as donor parents.
Singh, I S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, V

N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, U.P., India.

Key words: fruits, germplasm, tropical tree fruits, chemical composition, quality, genetic improvement, fruit crops, plant genetic resources

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 1, pages 34-37.

Abstract: A survey of bael (Aegle marmelos), jamun (Syzygium cumini), mahua (Bassia latifolia [Madhuca longifolia]), lasora (Cordia myxa), wood apple (Feronia limonia [Limonia acidissima]), monkey jack (Artocarpus lakoocha [A. lakucha]) and karonda (Carissa carandas) growing regions, particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh, was conducted to examine the variability in existing germplasm for selection of desirable genotypes. Information was recorded on fruit physical and chemical characteristics, and much variability was observed. Some desirable traits were identified.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture