Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year 2017

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Benyamin Lakitan1, Laily Ilman Widuri2, and Mei Meihana2,3

1College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia. 2Graduate School, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia. 3STIPER Sriwigama, Palembang 30137, Indonesia

Key words: trifoliate leaf, leaflet, estimation model, growth analysis, leaf expansion

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 15-21.

Abstract: Non-destructive measurement of leaf area (LA) is preferred in growth analysis and plant physiological studies. Many regression-based models have been developed for estimating LA using leaf length (L), leaf width (W), or imaginary rectangle of L x W (LW) as predictor or independent variable. Objective of this study was to develop and validate appropriate regression models for estimating snap bean trifoliate LA using easily measured L, W, or calculated LW. Snap bean used in this research was PV072 cultivar. Trifoliate-leaf samples were purposively collected from different individual plants, to represent wide range of leaf sizes, from the smallest leaf with fully open blade to the largest available leaf. Snap bean trifoliate leaf consists of three leaflets. The sampled leaves were alternately divided into two subgroups, based on length of terminal leaflet, for developing and validating LA estimation models. Linear, quadratic, and power regressions were evaluated for their appropriateness to be used for estimating LA. Intercept (a) was forced to zero to make the models more geometrically realistic. Results of this research indicated that: (1) zero-intercept quadratic and power regression models performed well for length of leaflet (Lt) or width of leaflet (Wt) was used as predictor, whereas zero-intercept linear model was appropriate and geometrically-sound if imaginary rectangular Lt x Wt (LtWt) was used for estimating surface area of both terminal and side leaflets (LtA); (2) for a practical, fast, and accurate estimation of LA, LtWt of terminal leaflet was the recommended option among other single or combination of predictors; and (3) recommended empirical model for LA estimation of snap bean trifoliate leaf is LA = 1.5198 LtWt.
K. Ohta

Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan.

Key words: Flesh weight, fruit number, fruit weight, locular gel, Solanum lycopersicum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 22-28.

Abstract: We investigated changes in the incidence of fruit cracking, yield, number, and characteristics of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Japan over a 20-year period. Ten cultivars released in Japan during this period were compared in a short-term experiment conducted from fall through winter in hydroponics. The incidence of fruit cracking in cherry tomato cultivars decreased gradually with year of release from 1987-2009. The incidence of fruit cracking was negative correlated with fruit yield and number among the 10 cultivars tested. In regard to fruit characteristics, the incidence of fruit cracking was negatively correlated with the fruit weight, the ratio of flesh weight to locular gel weight (F/G), and thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, but not with the flesh weight, soluble solid content, or firmness of exocarp and mesocarp among the 10 cultivars tested. These results indicated that, by breeding in cherry tomato cultivars released in Japan over the past two decades, the decreased incidence of fruit cracking was related to the increase in the fruit yield and number per plant, and to the increase in fruit weight and F/G, in association with an increase in the total volume of water inflow into fruits.
A.N. Niyokuri1, 2, S. Nyalala2 and Mariam Mwangi2

1College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda. P.O. Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda. 2Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University. P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya

Key words: Bioslurry, carnation, plant biostimulant, vase life, flower quality, flower yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 29-34.

Abstract: Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in Finlays, Lemotit Flower Farm, Kenya to determine the effect of bioslurry and plant biostimulant Hicure on yield, quality and vase life of carnation. The experiments were laid in split plot embedded in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four levels of bioslurry: 0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 L m-2 were applied in the main plot while four levels of Hicure: 0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 were used in the sub-plot. Results showed that bioslurry or plant biostimulant did not have a significant effect on carnation�s flower yield, weight, flower stem length and flower stem diameter. However, the interaction of bioslurry and plant biostimulant particularly at the rate of 0.5 L m-2 and 3 L ha-1 significantly improved the flower stem length by 1.11 cm as compared to control. The application of bioslurry significantly improved the flower head size in second trial from 21.09 mm in control to 21.68 mm, 21.81mm and 21.90 mm for the carnation�s flower head diameter and from 40.34 mm in control to 40.96mm, 40.97 mm and 40.88 mm for the carnation�s flower head length respectively for the rate of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 L m-2. The plant biostimulant Hicure significantly improved the flower head diameter from 22.12mm in control to 22.32 mm, 22.30mm and 22.40mm by respective application of Hicure at the rate of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 during first trial. Their interaction also improved the flower head length in second trial. Application of bioslurry had no significant effect on the vase life while plant biostimulant at the rates of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0L ha-1 significantly reduced the vase life by two days in first trial and one day in second trial. It was concluded that application of bioslurry at the rate of 0.5 L m-2 and plant biostimulant Hicure at the rate 3 L ha-1 can therefore, be adopted for improvement of carnation quality parameters such as stem length and flower head size.
Peter Jeranyama1, Jenna Sicuranza2, Harvey J.M. Hou3 and Carolyn DeMoranville1

1University of Massachusetts Amherst, Cranberry Experiment Station, 1 State Bog Rd, P.O. Box 569, East Wareham, MA 02538. 2Seed Savers Exchange, 3094 North Winn Road, Decorah, Iowa 52101. 3Alabama State University, Department of Physical Sciences, 915 S. Jackson St. Montgomery, AL 36104.

Key words: Yellow vine, cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, stress, chlorophyll, gas exchange, nutrient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: Yellow vine (YV) on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a symptom of stress that might reduce upright net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) through both, stomatal effects, which reduce the internal CO2 concentration (Ci), and nonstomatal factors. This study evaluated the shade effects on reversing the effects of YV symptoms in chlorophyll and nutrient content, and uprights gas exchange. Shaded vines were affected in the same way as unshaded yellow vines and their net photosynthetic carbon assimilation was not affected by stomatal activity in contrast with the normal green vines. However, A was not limited by stomatal activity ? 250 mmol m-2 s-1. Chlorophyll a concentration was positively correlated with A (r = 0.53 P? 0.05), shaded and YV had significantly lower total chlorophyll concentration relative to normal vines. Chlorophyll b was less affected by YV symptoms. Plant tissue were collected in autumn and analyzed for individual nutrient composition. Manganese levels were excessive in all samples; this was especially true for yellow vines, suggesting that the yellow vines may be under more water stress. Shading yellow vines did not change their nutrient composition relative to unshaded yellow vines. It is plausible that excess water on the bog is the major cause of the yellow vine as growers have a cultural practice of applying 25 mm of irrigation water a week regardless of the evaporative demand or field capacity.
Amira Sh. Soliman1 and Nermeen T. Shanan2

1Natural Resources Department, Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 2Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Lagerstroemia indica, foliar applications, moringa leaves extract, sea salt stress, inflorescence characteristics, antioxidant enzymes.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 35-45.

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted during 2014 and 2015 seasons in completely randomized factorial design to determine the effect of natural extracts foliar spray of Moringa leaves extract (1:30), humic acid (10%), seaweed (2%), Hogland nutrient solution and tap water as control on growth characteristics (plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves/plant, number of branches/plant, root length, and total dry weight of plant parts (roots, shoots and flowers), floral and chemical characteristics of Lagerstroemia indica grown at various sea salt concentrations (0, 3.12, 6.25 and, 9.37 dS/m) showed that by increasing sea salt concentrations, all growth characteristics, inflorescence number/plant and, inflorescence diameter decreased significantly, while, the number of days to inflorescence increased. Total chlorophylls, carotenoid contents, total carbohydrates and N, P, K%. Meanwhile, proline content, total soluble phenols, Na, Ca, and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) increased at the high level of salinity (9.37 dS/m). The usage of the Moringa leaf extract was significantly improved growth, inflorescence, as well as chemical characteristics, but also, decreased significantly Na under the adverse conditions of the studied sea salt stress. Moringa leaf extract could promote and protect crape myrtle plants against injuries by sea salt stress can be substitute inorganic or chemical fertilizer being safe and cheap.
Taycir Grati, Rachid Hellali, Salah Rezgui and Mehdi Ben Mimoun

NAT.43 Avenue Charles Nicole, City Mahrajene, 1082, Tunis, ISEP=BG 49 Avenue 13 Aot Choutrana II, 2036 Soukra. Tunisia.

Key words: Citrus orchard; hedgerow orchard; radiation; high density planting, pruning, chlorophyll

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 8-14.

Abstract: The experiment consisted in hedging citrus trees of the variety Washington Navel with a density of planting of 873 plants/ha. The hedge was 2.65 m high, 0.5 m wide on the upper part and 1.5 m on the lower part forming 10 degrees angle to the vertical and NE/SW orientation. The control tree was cut to a ball shape. Considering mean values of three years, hedging showed a high vegetative stretching (7.20 cm) while the control tree had a lengthening of 4.18 cm, with a growth rate of the spring shoots of 6.80 mm and 4.29 mm per day, respectively. As well, a larger spring leaf area was noted as compared to the control tree. This area was 366.55 cm2 against 124.22 cm2 by branch, respectively. In spite of a more severe pruning in the treatment, the fruit yield was near to that of the control (9.12 kg/tree) with a density of 873 trees/ha. No significant difference was noted for the total amount of chlorophyll between both sides of the hedge (South/East and North/West) for the non-bearing shoots (1.75 and 1.51 mg. g-1 fresh weight, respectively) and bearing ones (1.57 and 1.51 mg/g fresh weight) contrarily to the control (non-bearing shoots 1.2 and 1.57 mg g-1 fresh weight; bearing shoots 1.97 and 1.35 mg. g-1 fresh weight). All stages of maturation occurred earlier in the treatment.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture