Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year 2017

2018 |2017 |2016 |2015 |2014 |2013 |2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2007 |2006 |2005 |2004 |2003 |2002 |2001 |2000 |1999 |
Georgios F. Tsanakas,, Chrysothemis Georgakopoulou-Voyiatzi and Demetrios G. Voyiatzis

Laboratory of Floriculture, 2Laboratory of Biology of Horticultural Plants, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Key words: Arching, bending, cultivation, flower, high rack, hydroponics, Rosa, shoot

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 175-179.

Abstract: In the light of the global financial crisis, inexpensive and easily applicable cultivation techniques are a necessity for the grower in order to maintain his profit, while old cultivation techniques resulting in low productivity and yield are gradually eliminated. In the present paper the bending cultivation system of greenhouse cut roses is described, with its two key modifications: the ‘arching’ and the ‘high rack’ practice. The advantages of this system, that can improve the quality of flower shoots and increase production of cut roses, are described along with the commercial and physiological characteristics of the cut flower shoots and the overall physiology of the rose plant. The impact of shoot bending on the sink-source relationship in rose plants is also assessed. Moreover, the cultivation technique of partially removing the first compound leaf below the harvest cut is described and according to this treatment, an early harvest up to 7-10 days (15-20%) can be achieved. Finally, the effect of the pruning height on the quality and yield is discussed. The above mentioned cultivation techniques can be very easily applied with minimum cost, especially in cases when harvest programming for high-demand seasons is important.
K. Pavitra, A. Rekha and K.V. Ravishankar

Division of Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560 089, India. 2Department of Biotechnology, Centre for Post Graduate Studies, Jain University, Jayanagar, Bengaluru 560 011, India. 3Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560 089, India.

Key words: Musa; microRNA; transcription factors; Fusarium wilt; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 181-195.

Abstract: Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc1) is one of the important diseases affecting banana production. MicroRNAs, the short non-coding RNAs containing 22 to 24 nucleotides function in post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as gene expression regulators relate to several abiotic stress responses that have already been reported. However, the evidence for the interaction of miRNAs-mRNA in plant response to biotic stresses is very limited. Hence, this study mainly focuses on microRNAs and their target genes in fusarium wilt infection in banana. Here, we have examined the miRNA-mRNA expression patterns between two contrasting banana genotypes in response to fungal infection using quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR). A total of 6 miRNAs and 9 targets were examined for their expression at two-time points after infection (3 and 10 days post inoculation (dpi)) in both uninfected control and infected root samples. Based on expression analysis, we observed early and continuous down regulation of miRNAs and up-regulation of the nine targets in tolerant genotype “Calcutta-4”. This negative relation was not observed in the susceptible genotype “Kadali”. The mode of expression level of miRNAs and their putative target genes will help in understanding the roles of miRNAs imparting tolerance to fusarium wilt in banana (Musa spp.).
Moritani Shigeoki, Nanjo Hirotada and Itou Atsushi

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan. 2Professor Emeritus, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan. 3Agriculture Research Institute, Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, 82-9 Tanaka, Kuroishi, Aomori, 036-0522, Japan.

Key words: strawberry, cooling, geo-thermal energy, heat pump, temperature, greenhouse

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 186-190.

Abstract: A commercial heat pump was utilized to cool strawberry plants using a heat exchanger well at 10 m of soil depth. Two lines of strawberry were planted to grow fully on a high bench of 20 m length. The cooling treatment was conducted through a water tube connected to the chiller tank of the heat pump. A single water tube was buried under the soil surface. Two kinds of set-up for the water tube on the soil surface were designed to cool the strawberry crown. Compared with that of the control, the temperature of crown and soil was effectively lowered by the two treatments. Regardless of the setup of the water tube, the temperature of soil and crown did not differ between the two treatments. Considering the high water temperature of the heat exchanger tank of the heat pump system, the length of the heat exchange well was insufficient for the extraction of sufficient geothermal energy in this experiment. However, the converted heat pump and facile establishment of wells achieved cooling of the 4 benches effectively and at a reasonable cost.
Mariani Sembiring, Sarah Alifa and Bintang

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatra Utara, Indonesia.

Key words: Andisol, growth of mustard, microbial phosphate solubilization and SP36 fertilizer

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 196-199.

Abstract: Andisol is a land formed by volcanic ash and has a problem in the availability of phosphate (P), as a result the use of P fertilizer becomes ineffective. Andisol affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung has pH 4.83 which can affect the availability of P in the soil. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Microbial Phosphate Solubilization application and SP36 (fertilizer) dose to the efficiency of P fertilizing and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in Andisol land affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung. This research used factorial randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was Microbial Phosphate Solubilization i.e. without application (M0), 30 mL Burkholderia cepacia (M1), 30 mL Talaromyces pinophilus (M2). The second factor was SP 36 with five levels i.e. P0 = 0%, P1 = 25% = 50% P3, P4 = 75%, and P5 = 100% of the recommended dose (0g, 0.325g, 0.65g, 0.975g and 1.3 g). The measured parameters were soil pH, P-total, P-available, P uptake, plant height, shoot dry weight. The research results showed that Talaromyces pinophilus with SP36 25% of the recommended dose improved the efficiency of P fertilizing and the growth of mustard in Andisol affected by the eruption of Mount. Sinabung.
T. Mathowa, K. Tshipinare, W. Mojeremane, G.M. Legwaila and O. Oagile

Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana.

Key words: Capsicum annum, growing media, seedling emergence, growth and development.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 200-204.

Abstract: This study was carried out at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN) formerly Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) under an 80% net shade to investigate the effect of growing media comprising cocopeat, hygromix and germination mix on growth and development of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) seedlings. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD) with each treatment (growing medium) replicated four times. Growth parameters measured were; seedling emergence, plant height, leaf number and area, and seedling biomasses (both fresh and dry). Seedling emergence from hygromix and germination mix was significantly (P<0.05) higher than cocopeat in the first 15 days whereas a non-significant (P?0.05) treatment response was observed from day 16 to 20 across treatments. Plant height, leaf number and area, and seedling biomasses were significantly (P<0.01) higher in hygromix and germination mix as compared to cocopeat with hygromix revealing superior performance than germination mix. Hygromix and germination mix can be used to propagate sweet pepper because they enhanced seedling emergence, growth and development. Seedlings emerged in cocopeat, but the seedlings remained stunted suggesting that the medium needs further investigation on how it can sustain seedling growth and development.
J.M. Alvarez,,, C. Pasian, R. Lal, R. López and M. Fernández

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Campus La Rábida, Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva, Spain. 2 Horticulture Dept., 202 Kottman Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43210, USA. 3 C-MASC, 422B Kottman Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43210, USA. 4 IRNAS-CSIC, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012, Sevilla, Spain.

Key words: Compost, substrate additive, growing media replacement, carbon storage, Petunia hybrida, Pelargonium peltatum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 205-214.

Abstract: Vermicompost is a product derived from the accelerated biological degradation of organic wastes by earthworms and microorganisms. Biochar is a by-product of the C-negative pyrolysis technology for bio-energy production from organic materials. Containerized plant production in floriculture primarily utilizes substrates such as peat moss. Environmental concerns about draining peat bogs have enhanced interests in research on complementary products that can be added to peat. A comparative greenhouse study was conducted to assess the suitability of biochar (B) and vermicompost (V) as partial substitutes for peat-based growing media for ornamental plant production. Different blends of B at a volume fraction of 0, 4, 8, 12 % and V at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 % were compared to a baseline peat substrate (S) as control in the cultivation of geranium (Pelargonium peltatum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida). Substrates were characterized for physical and chemical properties, plant growth, and flower production. Mixtures with low-medium V levels (10 -30%) and high B level (8-12 %) in Petunia and Pelargonium induced more growth and flower production than that of the control. The results obtained with different B and V associations are of interest to those who want to reduce peat consumption for the production of ornamental plants in containers and to reduce carbon footprint of this commercially productive sector.
Hadora Raghavendra, T.B. Puttaraju, Damodar Varsha and Jodage Krishnaji

Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru - 560 065. 2Department of Botany, Karnataka University Dharwad – 580 003. 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, Raichur- 584 102.

Key words: Capsicum annuum L., Stability, Genotype × Environments, Fruit yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 218-221.

Abstract: Chilli, an important vegetable crop in India, is sensitive to environmental variations and climate change. An investigation was carried out to assess the stability of 25 test hybrids along with three commercial checks across different locations. The results of the study indicated that pooled analysis of variance showed the presence of significant genetic variability among the hybrids for all the characters studied. Variance due to hybrid × environment interaction was non-significant for all the characters except green fruit yield plant-1. Considering all the stability parameters, CMS10A x Byadgikaddi for fruit weight and fruit width, CMS10A × Gouribidanur for green fruit yield plant-1, CMS10A x LCA 206 for red fruit yield plant-1 and CMS8A x Byadgidabbi for number of fruits were exhibited below average stability and these were specifically adopted to unfavorable locations. The test Hybrids, CMS6A × Tiwari for the character average fruit weight, CMS9A × LCA 206 for the character fruit width were well adopted to all environments. CMS10A × Gouribidanur proved to be the best yielding genotype among 25 test hybrids, having higher yield level than the check and were also stable for most of the characters as evident from their non-significant s2di values.
K.S. Jamuna, M.S. Suma, C.K. Ramesh, Riaz Mahmood and L. Nanjundaswamy

Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, PG Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Sahyadri Science College, Kuvempu University, Shimoga - 577203, Karnataka, India. 1Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shimoga 577451, Karnataka, India. 2Academic Staff College, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006.

Key words: Cruciferous vegetables, phytochemicals, anti-proliferative, MTT, Cell lines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 230-234.

Abstract: Cruciferous vegetables have drawn a great deal of attention in cancer research because of their potential protective properties. In the present study, four vegetables viz., cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi and radish were procured and processed for cold extraction procedure using 70% ethanol. The extracts were subjected to the qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimation of glucosinolates content and in vitro antiproliferative activity by MTT assay on MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3 cell lines. The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. Quantitative estimation of glucosinolates in terms of potassium thiocyanate equivalence/5 mg of extract revealed that the cabbage has highest content of glucosinolate (122.6 µg) followed by cauliflower (109 µg), kohlrabi (101.6 µg) and radish (60.2 µg). The four cruciferous vegetables registered notable cell proliferation inhibition at different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL) in a dose dependent manner against three different cell lines. The results of antiproliferative activity was expressed in terms of IC50. Among the four vegetables, cabbage showed considerable cytotoxicity and cell proliferation inhibition with an IC50 value of 192.5, 189.7, 589.7 µg/mL followed by cauliflower (378.7, 398.9, 597.9 µg/mL), kohlrabi (389.5, 396.9, 619.7 µg/ml) and radish (415.4, 423.3, 703.6 µg/ml) in three different cell lines MCF7, DL and NIH-3T3, respectively.. The present study underlines the epidemiological surveys that cruciferous vegetables possess anticancer effects might be due to the presence of glucosinolates augmented with other phytochemicals.
M. Janaki, J. Dilip Babu, L. Naram Naidu, C. Venkata Ramana, C.K. Koteswara Rao and K. Uma Krishna

Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., Peddapuram - 533 437, A.P., India. 1Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., V.R. Gudem - 534 101, A.P.. 2HRS, Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., Lam Farm, Guntur - 522 034, A.P., India. 3 ANGRAU, Guntur - 522 034, A.P., India. 4Department of Statistics, COH, Dr. Y.S.R.H.U., V.R. Gudem - 534 101 (A. P.), India.

Key words: Chilli, Capsicum annuum, Combining ability, bio chemical, trait, additive

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 235-240.

Abstract: Fifty four F1 hybrids were developed in chilli using Line x Tester mating design with nine lines and six testers at Horticultural Research Station, Lam farm, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh during kharif. Estimates of combining ability effects were calculated for seven biochemical traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the parents, crosses and parents vs. hybrids for all the traits studied indicating that the existence of wide variability among the material studied. All the characters exhibited low gca to sca ratio indicated predominance of non-additive gene action in inheritance of all traits studied and improvement can be made through heterosis breeding. Among the parents, the lines LCA 504, LCA 446, LCA 466, LCA 654 and LCA 355 and the testers G4, LCA 678, LCA 453 and LCA 705-2 were found to be good general combiners and among the 54 hybrids, the hybrids LCA 504 x LCA 678, LCA 615 x G4, LCA 655 x LCA 315, LCA 355 x LCA 678, LCA 504 x G4, LCA 504 x LCA 453 and LCA 607 x LCA 703-2 were found to be promising hybrids as they exhibited significant gca and sca effects in desirable direction for most of the quality traits. The resulted promising hybrids may be further tested over locations or seasons and recommended for commercial release and identified good general combiners could be utilized in future chilli breeding programmes.
Muhammad Munir and Mohammed Refdan Alhajhoj

Frontier Agriculture, SOYL Precision Crop Production Division, Newbury, United Kingdom. 2College of Agriculture Sciences and Food, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Key words:

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 241-244.

Abstract: To control plant height of obligate long day plants, two trials were conducted, that is the use of plant growth retardants (A-Rest, Bonzi, and Cycocel), excluding control and exposure of plants to light for specific time (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks). Results indicated that plant height was significantly reduced by all plant growth retardants. Similarly, plants transferred to a short day (SD) light chamber for 2 weeks produced more or less similar plant height when compared to plant growth retardants. The study suggested that for taller plants production the duration can be prolonged up to 8 weeks. The use of light to control plant height is non-toxic and eco-friendlyObligate long day, herbaceous annuals, plant height control, plant growth regulators, light
K.S. Nitin, A.K. Chakravarthy and V. Sridhar

ICAR- Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru-560089, Karnataka, India.

Key words: Bioassay, Phaseolus vulgaris, host range, Tuta absoluta

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 3, pages 253-254.

Abstract: In India, South American tomato moth, Tuta absoluta has been recorded infesting plants of solanaceae family in 2014. Larvae of T. absoluta were observed feeding on French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris during October 2016 in Bengaluru, India. Olfactometer bioassays revealed T. absoluta preferred P. vulgaris leaves when tomato leaves are significantly damaged by the pest. In choice test, with healthy tomato leaf versus healthy bean leaf, all larvae significantly preferred tomato leaf (P<0.0001). However when T. absoluta larvae and adults were offered with damaged tomato leaf and healthy bean leaf, the female adult and larvae significantly preferred bean leaf (P<0.02 and 0.04, respectively). This study revealed that T. absoluta is expanding its host range in India. With the expansion of T. absoluta damage to other than solanaceae, there is a need for constant monitoring of the pest in other crops also, particularly from Fabaceae family.
A. Bhattacharya, B.V. Palan, K. Mali and B. Char

Mahyco Research Centre, Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Private Limited, Dawalwadi, Jalna- Aurangabad Road, Jalna 431203, Maharashtra.

Key words: Cauliflower, anther culture, double haploid, embryogenic callus, MS (Murashige and Skoog) media, plantlet regeneration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 101-105.

Abstract: A study was conducted to augment a viable protocol for the development of double haploid system in cauliflower, using in-house genotypes, by anther culture. A total of 13,680 anthers were cultured on different media combinations across nine genotypes. Genotype-to-(segregating) genotype variations in anther culture to plant regeneration were observed, chiefly, segregating genotype-9, had highest frequency of regeneration (26.43%) whereas, segregating genotype-2, had the lowest frequency (0.2%). Two segregating genotypes remained unresponsive. Anther cultured on modified media showed highest embryogenic callus induction potential as compared to other media compositions. Regeneration media, RM1 and RM2, showed good differentiation and regeneration potential. In total, 711 haploid / double haploid plants were developed across seven genotypes, with an average regeneration efficiency of 7.6%. This simple protocol reported here, can be used for DH line development in cauliflower, through anther culture, resulting in embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration. Further, protocol developed and discussed in the paper, will help to exploit DH technology in cauliflower for rapid inbred line development, and to speed-up cauliflower breeding for faster cultivar and better hybrid development.
S.F. El-Sharabasy, H.S. Ghazzawy, and M. Munir

Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt. 2Date Palm Research Center of Excellence, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., explant sterilization, disinfectants, silver nanoparticles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 106-112.

Abstract: The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1) alone and in combination with commonly used disinfectants (80% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% mercuric chloride) on in vitro grown explants of date palm cv. Barhee. Seventeen treatment combinations were made to study the survival, contamination and mortality percentage of in vitro grown date palm explants. The laboratory experiment was laid out on completely randomized design with three replicates in each treatment. The findings revealed that application of 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with 80% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% mercuric chloride statistically behaved alike. However, maximum survival of explants (88.89%) and zero percent mortality was observed when 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles was used alone. Higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles (10 and 20 mg L-1) when combined with sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride had a detrimental effect and caused highest explant mortality. Application of sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride showed 33.33% contamination and 11.11% explant mortality. It is therefore, concluded to use 5 mg L-1 silver nanoparticles alone for explant sterilization of date palm cv. Barhee, which is non-hazardous and environment friendly.
W. Mojeremane, M. Chilume and T. Mathowa

Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana.

Key words: Organic fertilizer, parsley, growth and development parameters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 113-118.

Abstract: Growth and development response of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) to four application rates of organic fertilizers (treatments) was investigated in a field experiment at the Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (formerly Botswana College of Agriculture) from November 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomised block design (RCBD) with each of the four treatments; 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 kg m-2 replicated three times. Data on growth and development parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and plant canopy (spread) was recorded at weekly intervals whereas, stem diameter (thickness), and shoots fresh and dry weights were recorded at the termination of the experiment. In general, significant statistical differences (P<0.05) were revealed for plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, stem thickness, canopy diameter and shoots fresh and dry weights. Application rates of organic fertilizers of 10 kg m-2 significantly enhanced the performance of the growth and development parameters of parsley with highest application rate revealing numerical superiority. Based on the findings, highest application rate of organic fertilizer is recommended to small scale farmers because its constituents are readily available and in abundance locally.
W.C. Bartz, T.A. Evans, C.A. Murphy and W.G. Pill

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717, USA.

Key words: Scotch bonnet pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacq., solution fertilization, liquid feed, fertilizer analysis, fertilizer ratio, potassium rate, pruning, Dutch V pruning, Spanish pruning, greenhouse production.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 119-124.

Abstract: Two initial studies were conducted to determine the potential for greenhouse production of Scotch bonnet pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). When these peppers are grown outdoors in Jamaica, fruit yield declines over time owing to increasing infections with several aphid-vectored viral pathogens. Production of Scotch bonnet peppers in greenhouses with insect-excluding screens covering the side- and end-walls would render the plants virus-free and would extend the harvest season which is limited by damaging rainfall during the wet season. We found in Delaware, USA (39.68° N) that fruit yields from greenhouse-grown plants were far greater than those expected from field-grown plants in Jamaica. Greater fruit number and weight of marketable fruits per plant were achieved from non-pruned plants compared to those from plants pruned to either of two Dutch V systems [plants pruned to two main stems and subsequent laterals pruned to one (V1) or to three (V3) nodes]. These differences were less pronounced when fruit yield was expressed on a per m-2 basis since pruned plants were closer together (1.8 plans m-2) than non-pruned plants (1.1 plants m-2). Low-K fertilizer (21N-2.2P-16.6K) compared to high-K fertilizer (15N-2.2P-20.8K) resulted in a 75% early-season and an 8% full-season increase in marketable fruit fresh weight·m-2 in non-pruned plants.
A.R. Bonyanpour, G.R. Moafpourian and B. Jamali

Horticulture Crops Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Alternate bearing, fruit quality, micronutrients, olea europaea, soil application

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 125-129.

Abstract: Present study was carried out to evaluate impact of micronutrients application (manganese, iron and zinc) with different methods (foliar or soil application) on quality parameters of ‘Belidi’ olive in Fars province. Chelated iron sequestrene 138, zinc and manganese sulfates were soil applied once a year and iron, zinc and manganese sulfate were foliar applied on plants, three times a year, alone or in combination. Results indicated that fertilizer application method did not have significant impact on tree productivity and fruit quality parameters in bearing or non-bearing years and alternate bearing in ‘Belidi’ olive trees was not correlated significantly with manganese, iron and zinc deficiency. It seems that foliar application of micronutrients fertilizers in regions with alkaline soils is a better strategy for improvement of olive production.
T.P. Tantasawat, A. Khairum, A. Tharapreuksapong, O. Poolsawat and P.A. Tantasawat

Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand. 1School of Crop Production Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.

Key words: Dendrobium ‘Earsakul’, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), mutagenesis, Phytophthora palmivora, sodium azide (NaN3)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 130-134.

Abstract: In vitro chemical mutagenesis of Dendrobium ‘Earsakul’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) followed by in vitro selection with Phytophthora palmivora culture filtrate (CF) generated several putative mutants potentially resistant to black rot. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the black rot resistance levels of these putative mutants, to estimate the genetic variability among them and non-mutagenized controls using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and to identify candidate markers with significant associations to black rot resistance. When 3 non-mutagenized control lines and 8 putative mutants, derived from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutation, followed by in vitro selection were evaluated for black rot resistance using detached leaf assay with a virulent isolate NK-53-9, it was found that all controls were susceptible to black rot, but the resistance levels of putative mutants varied. Four of eight putative mutants were moderately resistant or resistant to the disease, suggesting their usefulness in the breeding program. ISSR analysis of these controls and putative mutants with 7 ISSR primers yielded 7 to 29 reproducible bands per primer, ranging in size from 170 to 2100 bp. A total of 114 amplified ISSR fragments were obtained, 53 of which were polymorphic (46.5%). All controls have the same DNA patterns, while all 8 putative mutants showed altered genetic profiles compared to controls and were identified as mutants. The mutant SUT13E18-A appears to have distinct genetic profile compared to others as well as high level of resistance to black rot. Moreover, five ISSR markers significantly associated with black rot resistance were identified. These results suggest that ISSR analysis is efficient for mutant identification and characterization, and in vitro chemical mutagenesis followed by in vitro selection with P. palmivora CF provides a useful tool for future improvement of black rot resistant Dendrobium.
Basudeb Dasgupta and Solanki Sarkar

Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, 741252, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Crop canopy, betelvine, Phytophthora parasitica, Colletotrichum capsici

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 135-138.

Abstract: Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is a perennial dioecious creeper-belonging to the family Piperaceae usually grown under artificially erected structurals known as baroj that provides high moist and humid conditions favouring several diseases that in turn are major deterrents to good harvest. Betelvine suffers from many root and aerial diseases of which leaf rot caused by Phytophthora parasitica (Dastur) and leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum capsici Syd. (Butler and Bisby) are most important and are included in these studies for assessment. The extent of losses may vary from 20-40% for leaf rot and 10-20% for leaf spot, leading to almost total crop failure (Dasgupta and Sen, 1999). As the betel leaf is directly chewed immediately after harvest, it is not feasible to apply any pesticides that may cause toxic hazards to human being. An experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study the effect of different crop canopy by maintaining three different plant to plant spacing (viz., 11.1, 9.53 and 8.3 cm.) on leaf yield, disease incidence and keeping quality (days to 50% rotting) of betelvine. With the above plant to plant spacing and standard row to row spacing (60cm), the plant population was maintained as 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00 lakh ha-1. The results revealed that when crop canopy was increased by reducing the plant to plant spacing from 11.1 cm to 8.3 cm there were significant increases in both the diseases under investigation (rot disease 19.76 to 22.30%; leaf spot disease 22.68 to 25.42%). Significant increase in yield (26.29 to 33.63 lakh ha-1year -1), decrease in fresh weight of 100 leaves (460.85 to 432.35g) and decrease in keeping quality of leaves (13.14 days to 10.28 days) were recorded when crop canopy was increased by reduction in plant to plant spacing from 11.1 cm to 8.3 cm. From these results it can be concluded that shifts in microclimate resulting from increase in canopy by reducing the plant spacing aggravated the spread and infection of disease.
C. Parya

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia.

Key words: Integrated nutrient management, Gerbera jamesonii, poly hosuse, flower production, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 139-142.

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Entisol soil at Horticulture Research Station, BCKV, Nadia to study the response of integrated plant nutrient supply system on gerbera under poly house condition. Different combinations of chemical fertilizer (100, 75 and 50% RDF), organic manure (FYM and vermicompost) and bio-fertilizer (Azoztobacter and PSB) were evaluated in Randomized Block Design. Healthy disease free tissue culture gerbera plants with uniform growth were planted in the bed of a size 10 x 1 m with a spacing of 50 x 50 cm. The growth attributes, flowering characteristics, flowering quality (stalk length and flower size) was improved under the treatment receiving 75% RDF along with FYM, vermicompost and Azotobacter + PSB. The maximum numbers of flower with longest shelf life in field condition and vase life in room condition can be harvested with combined application of 75% RDF, FYM, vermicompost along with or without Azotobacter + PSB. The bio-fertilizer had significant role in flower quality improvement.
Manoj Kundu and Anil Dubey

Department of Horticulture (Fruit and Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India- 813210. 2Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India- 110012.

Key words: Citrus, irradiation, fruit size, fruit volume, fruit weight, gamma-ray.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 143-146.

Abstract: Citrus is one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world, greatly valued as table fruit as well as in the processing industry. Among the different citrus fruits, pummelo plays a major role in the processing industry. However, the presence of a large number of seeds in pummelo greatly hinders processing quality. Therefore, induction of seedlessness in pummelo is one of the major goals around the world. Currently, irradiated pollen technique emerges as a novel tool for induction of seedlessness in any fruit. However, reduction of fruit size is a great concern in irradiated pollen technique. Hence, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma ray irradiated pollen technique on fruit growth in citrus using pummelo (C. grandis (L.) Osb.) as seed parent while sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) cv. ‘Mosambi’ and sweet lemon (C. limetta Risso) as pollen sources. Irradiation of pollen grains was performed at 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gray (Gy) by using 60Co gamma ray and the experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with 5 replications. With the increased doses of irradiation, fruit growth in terms of length, diameter, weight and volume differed significantly throughout the period of observation starting from 35 days after pollination to till maturity. At maturity, maximum fruit length (387.70 mm), weight (590.27 g) and volume (885.27 cc) were recorded in C. grandis × C. limetta crosses at control while minimum fruit length (129.74 mm) and weight (211.54 g) were observed in C. grandis × C. sinensis crosses at 300 Gy. There was no fruit retention till maturity in either cross combination at 400 Gy. Among two different cross combinations, with the increased dose of irradiation, the rate of reduction in fruit growth in terms of length and weight as compared to respective control was much higher in C. grandis × C. sinensis crosses. However, for the production of marketable size fruits (not more than 300 g), irradiation of either pollen parent at 200-300 Gy was found to be the best while, doses below 200 Gy caused the production of fruits weighing more than 400 g, which do not have good market value.
A. Daryanto, M. Syukur, P. Hidayat, and A. Maharijaya

Agrotechnology, Gunadarma University Jl. Margonda Raya No 100, Depok, Indonesia 16424. 2Department of Agronomy and Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Jl. Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680. 3Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Jl. Kamper, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 16680. 4Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies, Jl. Raya Pajajaran, Bogor, Indonesia 16144.

Key words: Capsicum annuum, choice test, cotton aphid, host-plant resistance, no-choice test

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 147-151.

Abstract: The melon aphid or cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) is one of the major pests of pepper. Chemical based crop protection is the major way to control aphid until now. The use of resistant varieties may help to reduce the use of insecticides, together with Integrated Pest Management. The objective of this research was to identify the antixenosis and antibiosis based resistance of melon aphids in several pepper genotypes that may be explored as sources of resistance in aphid resistance breeding program of pepper. We used choice and no-choice test, and detached leaf based experiments. Antixenosis based resistance was detected as shown by significant number of aphid per leaf, total aphid per plant, and total winged aphid per plant. Antibiosis based resistance was also detected as shown by significant difference in longevity time, reproduction time, number of aphid progeny per day, and the fecundity of the melon aphid among genotypes.
Jarongsak Pumnuan, Lampan Khurnpoon and Ammorn Insung

Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand.

Key words: Pytotoxicity, methyl bromide, fumigation, clove, lemon grass

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 152-158.

Abstract: This study examined fumigation toxicity of 18 medicinal plant essential oils (EOs) against adult of aphid (Aphid gossypii) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Then, non-target effects of the EO mixtures on physiological changes of eggplant (Solanum melongena) were tested. The insecticidal property and physiological toxicity of the fumigation formulas were also examined and compared to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation. The results showed that the eggplant fumigated with clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) EOs mixture at the ratio of 1:3 (Cl1Le3) showed no significant physiological changes when compared to the control treatment. The formula resulted in similarly high mortalities (82-100%) of both insects when compared to MB. However, MB fumigation caused complete senescence appeared before day 3 observations. On the contrary, the eggplant fumigated with Cl1Le3 at 3 µL/L air showed no differences in the physiological changes when compared to the control throughout the 9-day examinations.
George E. Boyhan, Suzanne P. Stone, Cassandra A. Bure

Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia, 1111 Miller Plant Science Building, Athens, GA 30602. 1111 Fieldstone Farms Dr. Coweta, GA 30278,

Key words: Cucurbits, disease resistance, potyvirus, summer squash, Cucurbita pepo

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 159-162.

Abstract: Inoculation techniques were evaluated for the transmission of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) to susceptible squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) variety, Gentry. Two different types of airbrush sprayers (gravity fed and siphon fed) were evaluated in comparison to the standard method of rub inoculating leaves dusted with carborundum abrasive. In addition, the number of inoculations (1-3) with the airbrush sprayers and whether the carborundum dust was directly applied to leaves or mixed with the inoculum were also evaluated. The standard method consistently had high infection rates of 90% or greater, whereas the airbrush sprayers had inoculation rates of 30%-97%. Whether the carborundum was dusted or applied in the inoculum solution had no impact on infection rate. The greater the number of inoculations the greater the infection rate in two out of three experiments. In conclusion, the airbrush sprayer may be helpful during preliminary screening; however, it should not be relied on as the sole method of inoculation.
R. Rajakumar and U. Bagavathi Ammal

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, Puducherry - 609603.

Key words: Tank silt, organic manures, okra, Abelmoschus esculentus, INM, chlorophyll, mucilage, starch, protein, crude fibre, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 163-166.

Abstract: To evaluate the efficiency of tank silt with organic manures, pot culture experiment was conducted at Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal on Sorakudy soil series using okra as test crop with 13 treatments. Wherein, absolute control and application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) was compared with the application of tank silt (TS) alone @ 2 t ha-1 and different organic manures viz., press mud (PM), sewage sludge (SS), water hyacinth compost (WHC), FYM and spent wash (SW). The same set of treatments were repeated with 100% RDF. The results revealed that fruit yield was higher with TS+PM+ remaining through fertilizer (RTF) and it was comparable with RDF, TS+RTF, TS+SS+RDF and TS+PM+RDF. With regard to the quality of fruits, the chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content was higher in TS+WHC+RDF and TS+PM+RDF, respectively. The mucilage content was more with TS+SW+RDF. The absolute control treatment recorded the highest crude fibre content and physiological loss in weight (PLW). The study revealed that addition of this organo mineral amendments could positively influence the yield and quality of okra when applied over and above the 100% RDF rather than accounting their nutrient contribution during fertilization.
Ishan Saini, Kuldeep Yadav, Esha and Ashok Aggarwal

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana, 136119.

Key words: Zinnia elegans, AM fungi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride, interaction

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 167-172.

Abstract: The dominant AMF Glomus mosseae (G) and Acaulospora laevis (A) were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Z. elegans Jacq. and mass produced in laboratory for further studies. A pot experiment was performed to see the interactive potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and A. laevis) alone or in combination with Trichoderma viride (T) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P) on Z. elegans under glass house conditions. The experiment were conducted in a factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with five replicates. Various morphological (plant height, shoot biomass, root biomass, root length, leaf area, flower number, diameter) and biochemical attributes (chlorophyll, carotenoids, flower anthocyanin content, P content, total sugar, starch and protein content) were measured after 60 days. The results indicated a variation in growth response of Z. elegans with different treatments. AMF alone or in combination helped in increasing the different parameters of Z. elegans. The combination of G+A showed maximum increase of growth parameters followed by G+T and G+A+P. Consortium inoculation of bioinoculants plants with G+A+T+P treatment proved to be the best treatment for total proteins and total chlorophyll content while flower anthocyanin content was best in G+A treatment. AMF promotes higher AM colonization and spore number enhancing nutrient acquisition especially phosphorus, producing plant growth hormones resulting in an improvement of rhizospheric condition of soil, altering the physiological and biochemical properties of Z. elegans. Based on different parameters studied, G. mosseae was found to be an efficient bioinoculant as compared to A. laevis for growth enhancement of Z. elegans.
H.S. Ghazzawy, M.R. Alhajhoj and M. Munir

Date palm Research Center of Excellence, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, 2Central Laboratory for Date palm Research and Development, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, Sukkary, tissue culture, in vitro, sucrose, activated charcoal, embryogenesis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 91-95.

Abstract: The rational of the study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of sucrose (20 and 40 g/L) and activated charcoal (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/L) alone (control) and in combinations on the somatic embryogenesis of date palm cv. Sukkary. The results of two-factorial (sucrose and activated charcoal) randomized complete design indicated that no embryogenesis growth occurred when MS media was used without the addition of carbon source. The individual and combined effects of 40 g/L sucrose and 1 g/L activated charcoal produced sturdy embryogenesis and its related traits. The use of 40 g/L sucrose caused significant improvement in the number of somatic embryos (49.92), length of somatic embryos (1.08 cm), fresh weight of somatic embryos (1.54 g), dry weight of somatic embryos (0.148 g), germination of somatic embryos (4.92), and length of leaflets (2.14 cm). Similarly, use of 1 g/L of activated charcoal significantly increased the number (42.89), length (0.99 cm), fresh weight (1.29 g), dry weight (0.156 g), germination (3.22) of somatic embryos, and length of leaflets (1.47 cm) as compared to other treatments. Results also showed that the combined application of 40 g/L sucrose and 1 g/L activated charcoal significantly enhanced the number of somatic embryos (69.67), length of somatic embryos (1.37 cm), fresh weight of somatic embryos (2.18 g), dry weight of somatic embryos (0.262 g), germination of somatic embryos (6.33), and length of leaflets (2.57 cm) as compared to other treatment combinations. However, the same sucrose level with 0.5 g/L activated charcoal concentration also showed promising results.
Shigeru Satoh, Nobuharu Horiuchi and Satoshi Terabayashi

Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu 529-2194, Japan, (Former affiliation, Kyoto Prefectural University). 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

Key words: Solanum lycopersicum, purple tomato, anthocyanin accumulation, high temperature, year-round cultivation.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 2, pages 96-100.

Abstract: Anthocyanins are natural pigments distributed widely among higher plants. Anthocyanins in plant-derived food are also important nutrient constituents, due to their dietary health benefits. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop grown worldwide, many with anthocyanins in their fruit tissues, but the pigmentation varies specially in the popular purple tomato. To develop tomatoes with a high anthocyanin content, we conducted cultivation experiments under natural temperature and sunlight conditions using two purple cherry tomato cultivars ‘Toscana Violet’ and ‘Blue Bingo’ and an ordinary cherry tomato cultivar ‘Amakko’ as a control to clarify problems which we may encounter during year-round cultivation of purple tomatoes. The content of anthocyanins was high in the tomatoes cultivated in the winter but extremely low in those cultivated in the summer. These findings suggested that the high temperature in summer may cause poor anthocyanin production resulting in less pigmented fruits, although the yield of fruits itself is not be affected greatly. Furthermore, treatment of ‘Blue Bingo’ fruits at late growth and maturation stage by a night (8 h)-and-day (16 h) temperature regime of 15-22 ?C resulted in marked accumulation of anthocyanins in skin and outer pericarp of the fruits, but those of 20-27 ?C and 25-32 ?C had no or little accumulation.
Peter Jeranyama1, Jenna Sicuranza2, Harvey J.M. Hou3 and Carolyn DeMoranville1

1University of Massachusetts Amherst, Cranberry Experiment Station, 1 State Bog Rd, P.O. Box 569, East Wareham, MA 02538. 2Seed Savers Exchange, 3094 North Winn Road, Decorah, Iowa 52101. 3Alabama State University, Department of Physical Sciences, 915 S. Jackson St. Montgomery, AL 36104.

Key words: Yellow vine, cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, stress, chlorophyll, gas exchange, nutrient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: Yellow vine (YV) on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a symptom of stress that might reduce upright net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) through both, stomatal effects, which reduce the internal CO2 concentration (Ci), and nonstomatal factors. This study evaluated the shade effects on reversing the effects of YV symptoms in chlorophyll and nutrient content, and uprights gas exchange. Shaded vines were affected in the same way as unshaded yellow vines and their net photosynthetic carbon assimilation was not affected by stomatal activity in contrast with the normal green vines. However, A was not limited by stomatal activity ? 250 mmol m-2 s-1. Chlorophyll a concentration was positively correlated with A (r = 0.53 P? 0.05), shaded and YV had significantly lower total chlorophyll concentration relative to normal vines. Chlorophyll b was less affected by YV symptoms. Plant tissue were collected in autumn and analyzed for individual nutrient composition. Manganese levels were excessive in all samples; this was especially true for yellow vines, suggesting that the yellow vines may be under more water stress. Shading yellow vines did not change their nutrient composition relative to unshaded yellow vines. It is plausible that excess water on the bog is the major cause of the yellow vine as growers have a cultural practice of applying 25 mm of irrigation water a week regardless of the evaporative demand or field capacity.
Taycir Grati, Rachid Hellali, Salah Rezgui and Mehdi Ben Mimoun

NAT.43 Avenue Charles Nicole, City Mahrajene, 1082, Tunis, ISEP=BG 49 Avenue 13 Aot Choutrana II, 2036 Soukra. Tunisia

Key words: Citrus orchard, hedgerow orchard, radiation, high density planting, pruning, chlorophyll

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 8-14.

Abstract: The experiment consisted of hedging citrus trees of the variety Washington Navel with a planting density of 873 plants/ha. The hedge was 2.65 m high, 0.5 m wide on the upper part and 1.5 m on the lower part forming 10 degrees angle to the vertical and NE/SW orientation. The control tree was cut to a ball shape. Considering mean values of three years, hedging showed a high vegetative stretching (7.20 cm) while the control tree had a lengthening of 4.18 cm, with a growth rate of the spring shoots of 6.80 mm and 4.29 mm per day, respectively. As well, a larger spring leaf area was noted as compared to the control tree. This area was 366.55 cm2 against 124.22 cm2 by branch, respectively. In spite of a more severe pruning in the treatment, the fruit yield was near to that of the control (9.12 kg/tree) with a density of 873 trees/ha. No significant difference was noted for the total amount of chlorophyll between both sides of the hedge (South/East and North/West) for the non-bearing shoots (1.75 and 1.51 mg. g-1 fresh weight, respectively) and bearing ones (1.57 and 1.51 mg/g fresh weight) contrarily to the control (non-bearing shoots 1.2 and 1.57 mg g-1 fresh weight; bearing shoots 1.97 and 1.35 mg. g-1 fresh weight). All stages of maturation occurred earlier in the treatment.
Benyamin Lakitan1, Laily Ilman Widuri2, and Mei Meihana2,3

1College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia. 2Graduate School, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia. 3STIPER Sriwigama, Palembang 30137, Indonesia.

Key words: Trifoliate leaf, leaflet, estimation model, growth analysis, leaf expansion

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 15-21.

Abstract: Non-destructive measurement of leaf area (LA) is preferred in growth analysis and plant physiological studies. Many regression-based models have been developed for estimating LA using leaf length (L), leaf width (W), or imaginary rectangle of L x W (LW) as predictor or independent variable. Objective of this study was to develop and validate appropriate regression models for estimating snap bean trifoliate LA using easily measured L, W, or calculated LW. Snap bean used in this research was PV072 cultivar. Trifoliate-leaf samples were purposively collected from different individual plants, to represent wide range of leaf sizes, from the smallest leaf with fully open blade to the largest available leaf. Snap bean trifoliate leaf consists of three leaflets. The sampled leaves were alternately divided into two subgroups, based on length of terminal leaflet, for developing and validating LA estimation models. Linear, quadratic, and power regressions were evaluated for their appropriateness to be used for estimating LA. Intercept (a) was forced to zero to make the models more geometrically realistic. Results of this research indicated that: (1) zero-intercept quadratic and power regression models performed well if length of leaflet (Lt) or width of leaflet (Wt) was used as predictor, whereas zero-intercept linear model was appropriate and geometrically-sound if imaginary rectangular Lt x Wt (LtWt) was used for estimating surface area of both terminal and side leaflets (LtA); (2) for a practical, fast, and accurate estimation of LA, LtWt of terminal leaflet was the recommended option among other single or combination of predictors; and (3) recommended empirical model for LA estimation of snap bean trifoliate leaf is LA = 1.5198 LtWt.
K. Ohta

Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan.

Key words: Flesh weight, fruit number, fruit weight, locular gel, Solanum lycopersicum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 22-28.

Abstract: Changes in the incidence of fruit cracking, yield, number, and characteristics of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Japan over a 20-years period were investigated. Ten cultivars released in Japan during this period were compared in a short-term experiment conducted from fall through winter in hydroponics. The incidence of fruit cracking in cherry tomato cultivars decreased gradually with year of release from 1987-2009. The incidence of fruit cracking was negatively correlated with fruit yield and number among the 10 cultivars tested. With regard to fruit characteristics, the incidence of fruit cracking was negatively correlated with the fruit weight, the ratio of flesh weight to locular gel weight (F/G), and thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, but not with the flesh weight, soluble solid content or firmness of exocarp and mesocarp among the 10 cultivars tested. These results indicated that, by breeding in cherry tomato cultivars released in Japan over the past two decades, the decreased incidence of fruit cracking was related to the increase in the fruit yield and number per plant, and to the increase in fruit weight and F/G, in association with an increase in the total volume of water inflow into fruits.
A.N. Niyokuri1,2, S. Nyalala2 and Mariam Mwangi2

1College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda. P.O. Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda. 2Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University. P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.

Key words: Bioslurry, carnation, plant biostimulant, vase life, flower quality, flower yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 29-34.

Abstract: Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in Finlays, Lemotit Flower Farm, Kenya to determine the effect of bioslurry and plant biostimulant Hicure® on yield, quality and vase life of carnation. The experiments were laid in split plot embedded in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four levels of bioslurry: 0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 L m-2 were applied in the main plot while four levels of Hicure®: 0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 were used in the sub-plot. Results showed that bioslurry or plant biostimulant did not have a significant effect on carnation’s flower yield, weight, flower stem length and flower stem diameter. However, the interaction of bioslurry and plant biostimulant particularly at the rate of 0.5 L m-2 and 3 L ha-1 significantly improved the flower stem length by 1.11 cm as compared to control. The application of bioslurry significantly improved the flower head size in second trial from 21.09 mm in control to 21.68 mm, 21.81 mm and 21.90 mm for the carnation’s flower head diameter and from 40.34 mm in control to 40.96 mm, 40.97 mm and 40.88 mm for the carnation’s flower head length, respectively for the rate of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 L m-2. The flower head diameter was significantly improved from 22.12 mm in control to 22.32 mm, 22.30 mm and 22.40 mm by respective application of Hicure® at the rate of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 during first trial. Their interaction also improved the flower head length in second trial. Application of bioslurry had no significant effect on the vase life while plant biostimulant at the rates of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 significantly reduced the vase life by two days in first trial and one day in second trial. It was concluded that application of bioslurry at the rate of 0.5 L m-2 and plant biostimulant Hicure® at the rate 3 L ha-1 can therefore, be adopted for improvement of carnation quality parameters such as stem length and flower head size.
Amira Sh. Soliman1 and Nermeen T. Shanan2

1Natural Resources Department, Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 2Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Lagerstroemia indica, foliar applications, Moringa leaves extract, sea salt stress, inflorescence characteristics, antioxidant enzymes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 35-45.

Abstract: A pot experiment, conducted during 2014 and 2015 seasons in completely randomized factorial design to determine the effect of natural extracts, foliar spray of Moringa leaves extract (1:30), humic acid (10%), seaweed (2%), Hogland nutrient solution and tap water as control, on growth characteristics (plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves/plant, number of branches/plant, root length, and total dry weight of plant parts (roots, shoots and flowers), floral and chemical characteristics of Lagerstroemia indica grown at various sea salt concentrations (0, 3.12, 6.25 and, 9.37 dS/m) showed that by increasing sea salt concentrations, all growth characteristics, inflorescence number/plant and, inflorescence diameter decreased significantly, while, the number of days to inflorescence increased. Total chlorophylls, carotenoid contents, total carbohydrates and N, P, K%. Meanwhile, proline content, total soluble phenols, Na, Ca, and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) increased at the high level of salinity (9.37 dS/m). The usage of the Moringa leaf extract significantly improved growth, inflorescence, as well as chemical characteristics, but also, decreased significantly Na under the adverse conditions of the studied sea salt stress. Moringa leaf extract could promote growth and protect crape myrtle plants against injuries by sea salt stress and being safe and cheap can substitute inorganic or chemical fertilizer.
Olusola O. AdeOluwa1, Olukemi Y. Akinkunmi2, Henry A. Akintoye2

1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. 2Floriculture Improvement Programme, Vegetable / Floriculture Department, National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), P.M.B. 5432, Ibadan, Nigeria

Key words: Agricultural waste, Anthurium andraeanum Lind., flowering, growth, potting media, production

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 46-50.

Abstract: Conventional vegetative propagation of flamingo flower (Anthurium andraeanum Lind.) is time consuming while commercial quantities can take years to develop. Hence, determination of a suitable and available potting media/ potting media mixes to provide solution to its propagation and flowering challenge is imperative. The growth response and sustainability of flamingo flower in different growth media were evaluated under nursery conditions between late planting season of 2011 (September) to early planting season of 2012 (February). Second planting was during the early planting season (June) to late planting season of 2012 (December) in the screen house of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Eight growth media viz. topsoil alone (TS) (control), topsoil + poultry manure (TSP) 3:1, sawdust + poultry manure (SP) 3:1, river sand + poultry manure (RSP) 3:1, coconut husk + poultry manure (CHP) 3:1, coconut coir + poultry manure (CcP) 3:1, maize cob + poultry manure (MCP) 3:1, oil palm empty fruit bunch + poultry manure (EFBP) 3:1 were tested. Suckers of Anthurium were planted in nursery bags arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with three (3) replicates in each planting year. Results indicated that growth media significantly affected the percentage of surviving plants. Sawdust + poultry manure (SP) (3:1) (93.33 %) was similar to those in coconut coir + poultry manure (CcP) (3:1) (80.00 %). Plants in the medium, coconut coir + poultry manure (CcP) (3:1) (7.33) were the better as compared to all the others in both planting years in terms of visual quality at 85 days after planting (85 DAP). Flower production in Anthurium was not significantly affected by growth media utilised in this study.
Smail Acila1,2, Mohamed Lakhdar Saker1, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun1, Amani Taamalli3, Mohamed Didi Ould El Hadj1 and Mokhtar Zarrouk3

1Laboratoire de Protection des Ecosystèmes en Zones Arides et Semi Arides, Faculté de Sciences de la nature et de la vie, et des sciences de la terre et de l’univers, Université Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla, Algérie. 2Faculty of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar, El Oued, Algeria. 3Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Olivier (LBO), Centre de Biotechnologie, Technopole de Borj Cedria, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.

Key words: Olive (Olea europaea L.), yield performance, pomological characteristics, field conditions, algerian desert

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 51-57.

Abstract: The present study was carried out during five successive seasons (2010 to 2014) on mature autochthonous olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars namely: Azeradj, Chemlal, Neb djemel, Rougette and Sigoise grown under drip irrigation system in Dhaouia’s pilot farm in Oued Souf region in Algeria. Yield performance and pomological characteristics of these cultivars were studied. Results indicated that all of studied cultivars had acceptable olive production. Chemlal and Rougette recorded the highest cumulative yield over a five years period (306.6 and 294 kg/tree, respectively) whereas the lowest cumulative yield was from Neb djemel (243 kg/tree). Rougette had a remarkably alternate bearing index (0.18), whereas the other varieties showed a better stability in olive yields by a low alternate index (? 0.07). The largest fruit (6.86 g) were from Sigoise whereas Chemlal had the smallest fruit (1.76 g). Highest pulp fraction of total fruit weight (88.14%) was found in Sigoise, while the lowest (70.44%) was determined for Chemlal. Highest oil content in pulp dry weight was recorded in Rougette (36.31%) and Azeradj (32.35%), while the lowest values (20.14%) were recorded in Sigoise, Chemlal (27.71%) and Neb djemel (28.46%). Highest phenolic content in dry fruit pulp (23.56 mg GAE/g) was recorded in Sigoise whereas Azeradj had the lowest content (4.36 mg GAE/g). Based on these results, we recommend cultivating Sigoise and Neb djemel exclusively for table olive production in the Oued souf region, Rougette may be for dual purpose production, taking into account the economic feasibility for olive oil production in these desert areas.
C.K. Sunil, B. Kamalapreetha, J. Sharathchandra, K.S. Aravind and Ashish Rawson

Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India.

Key words: Ultrasound pre-treatment, microwave drying, okra, vacuum packing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 58-62.

Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study drying kinetics of ultrasound assisted, microwave drying of okra and its effect on colour change, texture and rehydration properties of okra. The samples were dried in a continuous microwave dryer at 540 W power level and at a belt speed of 5 mm s-1. It was observed that ultrasound as pre-treatment led to significant reduction in drying time of okra. Page model was found to be the best to explain the drying behaviour of okra with high R2, lowest RMSE and X2. Ultrasound retained the colour properties of okra. The lowest total colour difference was recorded in ultrasound treated- 60 minutes sample (18.11) followed by the control dried sample (17.58). The textural properties of the treatments of ultrasound treated – 60 minutes and ultrasound treated-vacuum packed -30 minutes samples had the values of hardness, gumminess and chewiness closer to fresh okra values. The highest coefficient of rehydration was recorded in ultrasound treated- 60 minutes samples. The vacuum pack did not show any effect on the rehydration ratio. The rehydration ratio increased with increase in time from 30 to 60 minutes.
Eli Korlina1, Evy Latifah1 and Kuntoro Boga Andri2

1Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology-East Java, Indonesian Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Jl. Raya Karangploso KM. 4, Malang 65152- Indonesia. 2Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology - Riau, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Jl. Kaharuddin Nasution No. 341 Km 10, Pekanbaru - Indonesia.

Key words: Tomato, grafting, plant disease, rainy season, eggplant rootstock

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 63-66.

Abstract: was conducted at Kediri, East Java for studying the effect of grafted tomato on off season production (rainy season) of tomato. Experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with four treatment combinations viz., ungrafted (G0) and Grafted (EG 203 eggplant rootstock) (G1) and variety Timothy (V1) and CLN 3024 (V2) were studied for their main and interaction effect. The results indicated that grafting had highly significant effect on wilt disease incidence. There was interaction between grafted and variety for viral diseases and the yield (number of tomatoes). Grafed plants of cv Timothy had low virus attack with a higher yield (65 fruits per plant), compared to ungrafted plants (29 fruits per plant).
O. Rubtsova and V. Chizhankova

M.M. Grishko Botanical Garden, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine, Timiryazevska Str.1, Kyiv-01014, Ukraine,

Key words: Rosa rugosa cultivars, morphological features, time of flowering, frost resistance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 67-69.

Abstract: Frost can damage rose plant and affects its performance in field under subfreezing conditions. Under severe cold conditions of North of Ukraine, use of winter-hardy rose cultivars is a suitable alternative for successful rose cultivation. Evaluation of 21 cultivars derived from Rosa rugosa Thunb. showed morphological characteristics and considerable frost tolerance and required no winter protection for their cultivation. Owing to their advantages, cultivars ‘Abelzieds’, ‘Agnes’, ‘Conrad Ferdinand Meyer’, ‘Delicia’, ‘F.J. Grootendorst’, ‘Hansa’, ‘Henry Kelsey’, ‘Kaiserin des Nordes’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Pink Grootendorst’, ‘Purple Roadrunner’, ‘Red Rugostar’, ‘Ritausma’, ‘Robusta’, ‘Rose a Parfum de l’Hay’, ‘Rotes Phanomen’, ‘Rugelda’, ‘Therese Bugnet’, ‘White Grootendorst’, ‘White Roadrunner’, ‘Yellow Dagmar Hastrup’ are recommended for planting in urban green areas of zone 5 climate of Ukraine.
R. Dhanalakshmi1, V. Vijaya Bhaskar2 and P. Subbaramamma3

1Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, 3Department of Plant Physiology, HCRI, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University,Venkataramannagudem-534101, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. 2Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, HCRI, Anantharajupeta-516105, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh.

Key words: Turf grass species, establishment, root length density, root mass density

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 70-74.

Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the rooting characteristics of turf grass species planted with two different methods of establishment. A two factorial experiment with two methods of establishment and four turf grass species was laid out in a randomized block design replicated thrice during the year 2014-2015. The rooting characteristics, such as number of roots per stolon, root length and distribution, root diameter, root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW), root length density (RLD) and root mass density (RMD) were studied during the course of investigation. The results showed that Bermuda grass planted with dibbling method of establishment recorded significantly higher number of roots, root length and distribution, RFW, RDW, RLD and RMD, whereas lowest rooting characteristics were exhibited by Korean grass planted with turf plastering method of establishment. The differences in RLD and RMD among different turf grass species observed to be related to the method of establishment adopted. Deep rooting species may have an advantage in absorbing the soil moisture from the deeper layers of the soil particularly during the water deficit periods thereby resulting in higher quality turf throughout the year.
Y.P. Sharma, K.K. Pramanick, J.S. Thakur, Santosh Watpade and Satish Kumar

IARI Regional Station (CHC), Amartara Cottage, Cart Road, Shimla-171004 (H.P.).

Key words: Malus, Pyrus, grain inoculum, rhizosphere, rooted sucker, differential reaction, white root rot, Dematophora necatrix

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 75-77.

Abstract: A screening technique for the identification of resistant germplasm of apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) to white root rot (Dematophora necatrix Hartig) was standardized under field conditions. Rooted suckers were planted in the field during late dormancy stage (February). These were challenge inoculated when plants had established in the field and attained new growth (during the month of July) by introducing fungus inoculum multiplied on wheat grain in the rhizosphere (50 grains/ sucker). Soil moisture was maintained at the field capacity. Different species exhibited differential reaction to disease development parameters viz., mycelial colonization of the infected plant parts, rate of wilting, defoliation, necrosis on the bark, wood and vascular region. Necrosis on the leaves was observed as first symptom of disease expression which took 10 days after the inoculation in susceptible species whereas incubation period was extended in resistant species. Most of the population of different susceptible host species collapsed within 30 days of inoculation. The mortality rate varied with species. The technique evolved is easy, quick, reliable and capable of creating required disease pressure under field conditions for screening rootstocks against white root rot disease.
S. Mahmood, M.M. Begum, N.N. Shati, M.H.T. Mondal and M.G. Hossain

Department of Horticulture, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh.

Key words: Postharvest, storage temperature, polyethylene bag, shelf-life, quality, Litchi chinensis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 78-83.

Abstract: Effect of postharvest treatments on shelf-life and quality of litchi cvs. ‘Bombai’ and ‘Madraji’ were studied. Fruits of both the cultivars were stored in polyethylene bags, bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining and open conditions at 5 °C and under ambient temperature for 9 days. In all the cases, fruits stored in open conditions lost weight rapidly and became unmarketable within 3 days due to rapid pericarp browning. In contrast, fruits kept in polyethylene bag had reduced weight loss and retained pericarp colour greatly during storage. Decay symptom was observed when the fruits were stored in ambient temperature either in polyethylene bags or in bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining. However, no decay symptom was found in fruits kept at 5 °C irrespective of storage treatments. The changes in TSS, ascorbic acid and total phenolics in the aril were minimum in the treatment of polyethylene bags than that of bamboo baskets with litchi leaf lining and open conditions. Overall, fruits of both cultivars showed similar storage behavior and maintained better quality at 5 °C than ambient temperature.
Marcos R. da S Vieira1, Fabiana B. de Moura1, Adriano do N. Simões1, Angela V. de Souza2, Caio M. G. Santos3, Reinaldo de A. Paes4 and Ygor H. Leal1

1Department of Vegetable Production, Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada-PE, Brazi. 2Associação Educacional do Vale da Jurumirim, Avaré-SP, Brazil. 3Instituto Federal de Pernambuco, Campus Zona Rural, Petrolina-PE, Brazil. 4Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias-CECA, Maceio, AL, Brazil.

Key words: Ornamental, floriculture, potted plants, ethylene, bioregulators, polyamines, boron, gerbera

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2017, volume 19, issue 1, pages 84-88.

Abstract: Polyamines and boron spray were applied on gerbera to study their effect on the quality of flowers in potted plants of gerbera cv. ‘‘Kosak’’. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with six treatments (control, 0.8 mL-1 boron, 2 mMol L-1 putrescine (Put), 2 mMol L-1 spermine (Spm), 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Put and 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Spm) replicated six times. Gerberas (ligules and leaves) cv. ‘‘Kosak’’ were sprayed once with 100 mL of each concentration as treatment. In all the treatments, 1 mL/100 L-1 of a non-ionic surfactant was added to improve wetting and spray distribution. The results indicated significant effect of Put, Spm and boron on measured traits (P?0.05). Mean comparison showed that 2 mMol L-1 Spm produced the better quality potted gerberas. It was verified that polyamines and boron was effective to delay flower senescence of gerberas ‘‘Kosak’’. However, the combination of the two substances (0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Put and 0.8 mL-1 boron + 2 mMol L-1 Spm) had non significant effect on flower shelf life.

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