Center for National Flower Engineering Research, College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing-100083, China. School of Forestry and Horticulture, Njala University, Sierra Leone, West Africa.
Key words: Bud dormancy, carbohydrates, plant hormone, temperature, tree peony
Abstract: The trial to investigate hormonal and sugar changes in tree peony buds associated with dormancy was conducted in the field at the Beijing Forestry University Experimental Site in China during autumn, winter and spring seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011), the periods of dormancy development and release. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. The hormone and sugar levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and spectrophotometer, respectively. Winter temperature accumulated abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars in tree peony buds which most likely induced dormancy. Spring temperature, on the other hand, degraded ABA and sugars, and accumulated gibberellic acid (GA3) that possibly released dormancy in tree peony buds indicating that environmental temperature was the key regulator of hormone and sugar levels that influenced bud dormancy and growth. The results suggest that accumulation of ABA, GA3 and sugars in buds during dormancy or bud-break stage appears to be directly related to the degree of temperature experienced at that stage. While ABA and sugar accumulated with decreasing temperature, GA3 accumulated with increasing temperature. It is likely that the reduction of ABA and sugars played an important role in bud dormancy release or alteration in bud growth of tree peonies. Seasonal patterns of sucrose and starch were almost the same in buds of the tested tree peony cultivars which contradicts previous studies suggesting converse relationship in terms of accumulation in winter. However, seasonal accumulation of endogenous compositions varies with cultivar. Among the investigated cultivars, ?Luoyang Hong? (LH) not only accumulated less ABA, GA3 and sugars but also released bud dormancy earlier than the ?Zhao Fen? (ZF) and ?High Noon? (HN), suggesting that the level of these internal compositions in LH is less responsive to seasonal temperature change. The ability of buds to simultaneously accumulate ABA and sugar reserves while in dormant state may provide a significant adaptive advantage for peonies to survive the erratic climate, particularly in temperate regions, which could be one of the reasons for the geographically widespread of the genus Paeonia in the world.
A. Vitkova, A. Gavrilova, M. Delcheva, A. Trendafilova and M. Todorova
Department of Plant and Fungal Diversity and Resources, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria. Institute of Organic Chemistry with Ce
Key words: Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl., A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., medicinal plants, endemics, ex situ, biological productivity, flavonoids, tannins
Abstract: Guidelines for introduction and ex situ cultivation of species from genus Alchemilla, known by its curative properties for a variety of health disorders are presented for the first time. Subject of the study are the rare and protected Bulgarian species Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl. and A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., which showed high antioxidant activity in our recent research. Transplant material from natural populations grown in two live collections in the regions of Vitosha Mt. (1404 masl) and West Rhodopes Mt. (1500 masl) (Bulgaria) was used. The growth and development rate of the new plants was assessed according to the method of phenological observations. Nine morphometrical indices were studied and the biological productivity of the species was determined in ex situ conditions. The quantities of flavonoids (calculated as % quercetin) and tannins (calculated as % pyrogallol) during the different phenological stages of ex situ plant development were assessed via spectrophotometric methods. Several differences between the species in the two experimental stations were summarized as dependent on the ecological conditions. All results of the study were used to elaborate methodological instruction for successful cultivation of the species in field conditions.
Ajay Kumar Upadhyay, Jagdev Sharma and J. Satisha
National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune ? 412 307, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting the productivity of the grapes in India. The response of vines differs under such conditions. Dogridge rootstock though introduced in the country to deal with salinity and moisture stress, tolerance was found lacking under such conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate the salinity tolerance of Thompson Seedless vines raised on different rootstocks and on own root at two salinity levels viz., 2 and 4 dSm-1. The rootstocks included were 110R and 1103P from Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris parentage, Dogridge(Vitis champinii) and St. George (Rupestris du Lot). The irrigation water salinity was manipulated using sodium chloride. Thompson Seedless vines raised on 110R and 1103P rootstocks did not show marginal necrosis and leaf blackening symptoms at both salinity levels whereas other rootstocks showed mild to severe symptoms. All stock-scion combinations recorded significantly higher bunch weight than own rooted vines. Highest yield was recorded in the 1103P rootstock at both the salinity levels which was on par with 110R rootstock. Significant differences existed between rootstocks and own root at both the salinity levels with the lowest mean petiole Na values recorded in case of vines raised on 110R. High content of Na in vine tissues (>1.0%) grafted on Dogridge rootstock suggest that this rootstock could not exclude Na under saline irrigation. Though below the threshold levels, at 4 dSm-1 level, Dogridge rootstock recorded significantly higher chloride in petioles than other rootstocks. The sodium ?potassium ratios in leaf blade and petiole were least in case of 110R and 1103P rootstocks whereas higher values were recorded in case of other stock-scion combinations and on own roots. Highest accumulation of sodium in vegetative parts was recorded in vines grafted on Dogridge whereas the rootstocks 110R and 1103P, accumulated highest K, Mg, Ca and P.
Abstract: The present study, aimed at advancing Alphonso mango harvest season through manipulation in time of soil application of paclobutrazol (PBZ) [soil application on 15th of May, June, July, and August]; foliar spray of KNO3 (3%) [August and September], was conducted during 2010 to 2012 cropping seasons in red lateritic rocky soil of Konkan (Maharashtra, India). Results of individual years and mean for three years revealed that significant earliness in flowering (85.4 day) and advancement in harvesting (82 day) was achieved with the application of PBZ on 15th May. PBZ application on 15th June was relatively less effective in inducing early flowering (56 day) and harvesting (69 days). However, the greater extent of flowering (72.23 %) and fruit yield per tree (40.72 kg/tree) were recorded with PBZ applied at recommended time i.e., on 15th August. Individual fruit weight was higher in KNO3 sprayed tree in the months of August (268g) and September (265.5 g), whereas fruit T.S.S. was higher (19.37 oBrix.) in trees receiving PBZ on 15th August. The findings of study indicated huge potential for realizing about 5-6 times higher returns from Alphonso produced in February-March months as compared to May harvest.
K.T. Kareem, B.O. Odu, V.C. Umeh, V.A. Chikaleke, K.E. Oke, O. Arogundade, A.O. Adediji and O.O. Odedara
National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan
Abstract: A survey was conducted on a 33 year old orchard to determine the incidence and distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus in different citrus cultivars at National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Nigeria. Compound enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Compound ELISA) was used to detect the presence of CTV in the citrus leaf samples. The results revealed 100% incidence in all the varieties tested. Of all the sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) budded on Cleopatra mandarin rootstock, Washington Navel had the least plant survival of 2 out of the 12 planted with a canopy spread of 7.91 m and fruit yield of 7.00 kg per tree. It also had the highest mean ELISA reading with an absorbance (A405nm) of 3.4780 while Bende had the least titre of 3.2158 with plant survival of 12 out of the 12 trees planted and fruit yield of 57.70 kg per tree. No significant difference was observed in Agege variety of sweet orange budded on different rootstock types and their ELISA values ranged from 3.283 to 3.384. Among the seedling trees, White grape recorded the highest mean ELISA value of 3.4698 while the average ELISA values of the other seedling trees were not statistically different from each other with their titres ranging between 3.2712 and 3.3615. The results establish the pandemic status of CTV in NIHORT orchard. The use of resistant cultivars and cross protection are recommended as effective, economical and environment-friendly means of preventing the incidence and spread of CTV.
Anant Bahadur, Amit Kumar Singh and S.N.S. Chaurasia
Division of Vegetable Production, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 221 305, India.
Key words: Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus, drought stress, organic mulch, gas exchange, water use efficiency
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on okra by imposing water deficit and using organic mulches during spring-summer of 2009 and 2010 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. The treatments comprised of three levels of irrigation scheduling (5, 10 and 15 days intervals) and three level of mulch (pea straw, dry grass mulch at 7.0 t ha-1 and ?no mulch?). Significant differences on physiological and yield attributes were observed in various irrigation treatments and organic mulches. Organic mulching enhanced the stomatal conductance and photosynthesis by 127-154% and 50-59%, respectively over no mulch. Similarly, there was 16 and 33% reduction in photosynthesis, and 33 and 36% reduction in stomatal conductance in 15 days irrigation scheduled plant as comparison to 5 and 10 days schedule, respectively. The maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was registered with irrigation at 10 days coupled with organic mulching. Similarly, irrigation at 5 or 10 days recorded 40.3 and 45.6% higher pod yield, respectively over longer intervals. Significantly higher yield was noticed in both organic mulches over no mulch. Maximum pod yields (103.55 and 116.73 q ha-1) were recorded respectively, with irrigation at 10 days interval and mulching either with pea straw or dry grass. Mulched plants exhibited very proportional allocation of drymatter in various plant parts. The maximum water use efficiency of 351.60 kg ha-1cm-1 was recorded in treatment comprising irrigation scheduling at 10 days interval and mulching with dry grass.
R.M. Sharma, A.K. Singh, Sushil Sharma, F.A. Masoodiand Uma Shankar
Division of Fruit Science, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu-180009. Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Division of Agricultural Engineering, S.K. University o
Abstract: Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruits and its cultivated area has increased significantly during the last few years in subtropics but the margin of profit is reduced due to lack of runnering caused by high temperature and high light intensity. The objective of the study was to exploit the possibility of its regeneration in subtropical areas by moderating the effect of high temperature and light intensity through the use of shading nets. Of the 4 shading levels, use of 50% shading tended to produce highest number of runners in Chandler (11.44/plant) and Oso Grand (16.33/plant) cultivars. The runners produced under shadings (25-75%) were significantly vigorous in respect of number of leaves (8.38/plant), leaf area (69.70 cm2), crown diameter (13.49 mm) and root length (11.26 cm) but the highest root dry matter (6.37 g/plant) was observed in the runners produced under 0% shading. In the plants regenerated under subtropical conditions, shadings resulted higher survival rate, early cropping, longer picking duration, higher fruit yield and average fruit weight than the plants raised under 0 % shedding in subtropical as well as temperate areas. The use of 50% shading treatment during regeneration tended to increase the picking duration (44.70 days), fruit yield (278.08 g/plant) and fruit weight (14.22g) of strawberries. The runners of Chandler excelled over Oso Grand statistically in respect of picking duration and fruit yield.
Barikara Umesha, S. Santhana Bosu, K.P. Rema and A.R. Murumkar
College of Agricultural Engineering & Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore-03, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrisur (Kerala), Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2009 to 2010 to study the effect of drip irrigation with fertigation in soil-less culture under controlled cultivation for Tomato. The highest yield per plant (2.16 kg/plant) and yield per hectare (112 t/ha) was registered in Peat:Vermicompost (T4F2 ) and the lowest yield per plant was recorded in Coir pith :Vermicompost (T2F1) (1.07 kg and 55.48 t/ha) under polyhouse condition. The highest water use efficiency (1972.87 kg/ha cm) was obtained in T4F2 and the lowest was obtained in T2F2 (977.30 kg/ha cm) in poly house. The highest N fertilizer use efficiency (700 kg/ ha.kg of N) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency was noted in T2F1 (277 kg/ ha kg of N). The highest K fertilizer use efficiency (560 kg/ ha.kg of K) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency (222 kg /ha.kg of K) was noted in T2F1. The highest benefit cost ratio 2.33 was recorded in T4F2. The results of the study indicated that the controlled cultivation of tomato in soil-less media has more benefits, in terms of yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency, and benefit cost ratio.
Krishna Ji, S.S. Solankey, Sanjay Kumar and Diwaker Singh
Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 221 305. Department of Horticulture, Udai Pratap Autonmous College, Varanasi 221 002.
Abstract: Eight chilli genotypes including four lines (CCA-4261, CCA-4257, IC-395318 and VR-339) and four testers (DSL-2, EC-519636, EC-566320 and Pusa Jwala) were crossed to obtain 16 F1 hybrids. The lines (females) included three cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (CCA-4261, CCA-4257 and IC-395318) and one fertile line (VR-339). The 24 genotypes (4 lines, 4 testers and 16 resulting F1 hybrids) were evaluated for growth and yield contributing traits. Correlation studies indicated that yield per plant was significantly correlated with fruit weight, total fruit weight per plant and plant height at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, whereas, it was positively associated with fruit length, fruit diameter and number of fruits per plant. The lines CCA-4261, CCA-4257, VR-339 and EC-566320 were grouped under cluster I while IC-395318 and EC-519636 grouped in cluster II. Analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that lines and testers exhibit adequate variation for all the characters. Highest phenotypic coefficients of variability obtained from fruit yield and the lowest from fruit diameter. Based on per se performance, heterosis and SCAeffects, the hybrids IC-395318 ? EC-566320, CCA-4261 ? EC-519636 and VR-339 ? EC-566320 were found superior hybrids for yield and its attributing traits. These elite hybrids may be tested for yield and other quality traits under different agro-climatic conditions for commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour.
Sharmistha Naik and Vishal Rana
Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry. Nauni, Solan-173230.
Key words: Artificial pollination, liquid pollen extenders, kiwifruit, agar, gelatin, arrowroot powder, sago powder, gum Acacia, fruit set, fruit weight
Abstract: Artificial pollination using liquid pollen extenders is a labour saving method as well as it also increases the efficiency of pollination. An attempt was made to develop effective and relatively cheap pollen extenders for spray pollination and also to compare different pollination methods. Different liquid pollen extenders containing basal sucrose solution (BSS) (0.2M sucrose) plus 0.1% agar/0.01% gelrite/0.9% sago powder/1.4% arrowroot powder/1.0% gelatin/0.005% gum Acacia were evaluated for spray pollination. Quantity of pollen used in all these extenders was 0.25 g per 50 mL of extender. Maximum fruit set (89.63%) and A-grade fruits weighing > 80g (10.22%) were recorded in BSS + 1.4% arrowroot powder. Positive correlations were observed between fruit weight x fruit length (r=0.882), fruit weight x fruit diameter (r =0.852) and fruit weight x number of seeds/fruit (r=0.980). Regression equations showing relationships between fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter and number of seeds/fruit were computed and were found to be highly reliable. Spray pollination using automizer was observed to be more than two times efficient as compared to hand pollination. The pollination efficiency would further be improved using pressure sprayers and/or tractor mounted sprayers.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, R.P. Singh and Vineeta Singh
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Box No. 01, P.O. Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221305, Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi-221002, Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science
Key words: Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, early blight, Alternaria solani, percent disease incidence (PDI),area under disease progress curve (AUDPC)
Abstract: Experiments were conducted for three years to study the interaction between tomato genotypes and environment against early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani. Fifty one genetically diverse genotypes of tomato were screened in field conditions against early blight in Rabi season of 2006-09 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. Results revealed thatgenotypeLA-3980 was resistant while, EC-520058, EC-520060, EC-520061, EC-520070, EC-521080, WIR-3928 andH-88-78-1 were highly resistant. All the resistant and highly resistant lines belong to wild species except H-88-78-1 and LA-3980. Only three genotypes, EC-520061, EC-520070 and H-88-78-1 were stable in each environment for resistance to early blight disease in tomato. Relationship of environment with resistant genotypes indicated that EC-520061, EC-520070, WIR-3928 and H-88-78-1 had low regression coefficient (b<1) and low deviation from regression (sd2=<1) than others (b= >1and sd2=>1) indicating stable and adaptive genotypic resistance to early blight. Hence these genotypes may be used as donor parent for development of early blight resistant/ tolerant varieties / lines.
K. Habib, N. Ahmad, P.A. Sofi, S.H. Khan and T. Shafi
Division of Vegetable Sciences, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, 191121, J&K. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Old Airport Road, Srinagar, J&K. Regional Research Station, SKUAST-K, Wadura Sopore, 193201, J&K, India
Abstract: Ten diverse broccoli genotypes selected from germplasm collection maintained at SKUAST-K, Shalimar were crossed in all possible combinations excluding reciprocals. Forty five F1 crosses (excluding reciprocals) were generated through a 10 x 10 diallel mating design. Each genotype was represented by two rows of ten plants each at spacing 60 x 45 cm in a Randomized Block Design with 3 replications in Rabi 2008 and 2009. Data was recorded on five randomly selected competitive plants from each replication for 16 metric traits. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was moderate to high in lateral head yield, lateral head number, main head yield and total carotenoids and low for days to central head harvest, days to central head initiation, plant height and plant spread. Broad sense heritability was comparatively moderate to higher in plant height, head length, days to central head initiation, lateral head yield, main head yield,. total head yield and total carotenoids content but low for ascorbic acid content, plant spread and dry matter content. Genetic advance was high (> 20.%) for lateral head yield and total carotenoids content while it was low (<5%) for ascorbic acid, peduncle length and dry matter content. Among various traits, the plant spread, head diameter, leaf number, leaf area, lateral head number, main head yield and lateral head yield possessed positive correlation with total yield at genotypic level while plant height, head length, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids had negative correlation with total yield at genotypic level. However, main head yield, lateral head yield, head diameter and lateral head number had highly significant positive correlation with total head yield.
A. Venkatram and A. Bhagwan
College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Hyderabad - 500030, A.P, India. Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, Medak - 502110, A.P, India.
Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of various concentrations of antioxidants [500, 1000 ppm of sodium benzoate (SB) and ascorbic acid (AA) and 50, 100 ppm of benzyl adenine (BA)] on storage life of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) fruits of cv ?Balanagar?, stored at 15?1?C, was studied at Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, A.P., India. Various physico-chemical parameters like physiological loss in weight (PLW), firmness, spoilage, ripening, days taken for ripening, storage life, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid were estimated at an interval of 2 days during storage. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) recorded the lower PLW than untreated fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas maximum days taken for ripening was recorded with BA (50 and 100 ppm) and SB 500 ppm. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) or SB (500 ppm) or AA (1000 ppm) recorded lower spoilage and correspondingly increased the storage life up to 11, 10.5 and 10 days, respectively, whereas, untreated fruits recorded a storage life of 8.5 days only. The lowest TSS and the highest ascorbic acid were recorded with fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas untreated fruits recorded highest TSS and the lowest ascorbic acid. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that postharvest application of BA (100 or 50 ppm) increases the storage life of custard apple by 29.41 per cent (2.5 days) over untreated fruits.
P. Suresh Kumar, V.K. Choudhary, M. Kanwat and A. Sangeetha
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, AP Centre, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh-791 101. India
Abstract: A field trial was laid out on 11 year old Khasi mandarin trees with 12 different doses organic sources (20, 40, 60, 80 kg each of FYM, pig manure and poultry manure) and three different doses (200, 100, 100; 400, 200, 200; and 600, 400, 400 g NPK / tree ) of inorganic fertilizers to evaluate the effect of different nutrient sources on growth and yield performance of Khasi mandarin. Highest number of fruits per plant was recorded with 600, 400, 400 g NPK application. Plant height (6.96 m), crop canopy (5.7 x 5.6 m) and yield were also highest with full dose of NPK. However, stem diameter (86.8 cm) was highest with the application of 80 kg pig manure. The physico-chemical characteristics of fruits showed that peel weight (32.14 g) and thickness (4.2 mm) were more with full dose application of NPK, while segment weight (87.52 g) and fruit weight (120.4 g) were highest with 80 kg application of FYM. Inorganic fertilizers other than reducing TSS have profound effect on the increase in acidity which in turn reduced the TSS: acid ratio. It can be concluded that 80 kg FYM or 80 kg pig manure application would replenish the depleted nutrients on the khasi mandarin growing soils and maintain soil health.
Reza Farzinebrahimi, Rosna Mat Taha and Kamaludin A Rashid
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia.
Abstract: Growth and survival percentage of Curculigo latifolia Dryand under different light intensity and various soil media was studied to work out suitable growing conditions for the species. Three light intensity (25, 50 and 100%) and soil media consisting topsoil, organic manure and sand as 1:1:1 (T1), 2:3:1 (T2) and 3:2:1 (T3) were used as treatments for planting C. latifolia. When multiplied by rhizomes, the survival rates in all treatments were 100%, however the leaf growth and number were influenced by light intensity and soil media. There were no significant differences of leaf growth between T1 and T3 under 50% light and T2 under 100 % light. However, in T2 under 25% light higher leaf number and in T1 (1:1:1) under 50% light higher plant height was observed. The species was successfully regenerated by rhizomes for the present study. The studyrevealed that light intensity has significant effect on plant height and leaf number of C. latifolia. Soil media influenced the height and leaf number with different effect under varying light intensities.
R.S. Negi, B.S. Baghel and U.S.Gautam
Deendayal Research Institute Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Satna (MP)-485331, India. College of Horticulture, JNKVV, Mansour (MP), India. Zonal Project Directorate, Zone- VII(ICAR), Jabalpur (MP), India.
Key words: Aonla,in situ,ex situ, method of orchard establishment, method of propagation, budlings/graft
Abstract: To standardize the rehabilitation technology for degraded pasture/grazing lands through aonla (Emblica officinalis), an experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deendayal Research Institute, Satna for two consecutive years with 5 methods of orchard establishment (in situ raising of seedlings/rootstocks, transplanting of one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags, transplanting of one year old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly tubes, transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in poly bags and transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in nursery) and 5 methods of propagation, i.e. patch, shield, chip, forkert budding and wedge grafting. Growth parameters were higher in the plants raised by transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling method for orchard establishment. The in situ raising of seedlings was found to be next suitable method in respect of growth parameters. Among the different methods of propagation, chip budding recorded the maximum growth of budlings closely followed by patch budding. The interaction between method of orchard establishment and propagation registered better growth of budlings under transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling and performing chip budding next year. Based on these results, transplanting one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags and performing chip budding next year during last week of June can be recommended for the rehabilitation of wastelands on a commercial scale for the economic utilization of such wastelands through aonla cultivation.
R.A. Patil, D.V. Sudhakar Raoand B. Manasa
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru-560 065. Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru-560 089. India.
Abstract: Laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of modified atmospheric packaging on chilling injury and shelf-life of custard apple fruits at the division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru, during September-October, 2009. The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. Three different kinds of flexible films viz. low density polyethylene (LDPE), Cryovac Opti 300 and Cryovac PD-961 of 30 x 25 cm size were used for packaging of fruits as main treatment. Eight fruits were packed in each film bag and these packs were further master packed in ventilated CFB boxes. The boxes were then stored in "Walk-in" cold rooms maintained at 8, 12 and 15 oC (85-90 % RH), respectively. The observations were recorded at weekly intervals. Results of the study revealed that MAP of custard apple fruits with LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film could alleviate the chilling injury at 8 ?C to considerable extent, besides extending the storage life. The non-packed control fruits could be stored up to three weeks at 8 oC, but these fruits lacked desirable appearance due to development of chilling injury. At 12 oC, the fruits could be kept in unripe condition up to two weeks, when the fruits were packed either in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film, when compared to four days in non-packed fruits at room temperature. These fruits ripened normally without chilling injury (CI) in three days when they were shifted to RT after unpacking. It can be concluded that the storage life of custard apple fruits could be extended at 12 oC without any CI by packing the fruits in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film.
Manoj Kundu, Ritu Joshi, P.N. Rai and L.D. Bist
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), India
Key words: Pear, plant bio-regulators (PBRs), trunk soil line pore (TSLP), productivity, total sugar content, TSS to acid ratio.
Abstract: Pear (Pyrus spp.) mainly cultivated in the temperate Himalayan region of India, is an important fruit crop. Although, it is a temperate fruit but tarai region of northern India have great potential for growing different low chilling cultivars of this fruit. But the main problem of these low chill cultivars in this area is vigorous growth with shy bearing habit with heavy fruit drop and poor fruit growth resulting very low yield with much inferior fruit quality as compared to fruits produced in temperate region. Plant bio-regulators have the great potential to boost up reproductive growth resulting higher yield with better quality fruits under tarai region. Hence, a field experiment was conducted to study the role of different plant bio-regulators (PBRs) to prevent fruit drop and to improve fruit growth, quality and the productivity of low chill pear cv Gola. Fifteen years old Gola trees were foliar sprayed or soil drenched with different PBRs viz., gibberellin (GA3), benzyl adenine (BA) and paclobutrazol (PP333) at petal fall (PF) stage followed by two and four weeks after PF or at late fall stage. The results indicate that different treatments had significant effect on all the parameters studied. Minimum fruit drop and maximum productivity was depicted in foliar and soil application of PP333 followed by foliar spray of GA3. However, fruit growth (length and width) and volume at maturity and total sugar content was recorded maximum in combined application of GA3 and BA. Foliar as well as soil application of PP333 was also found effective for increasing the sugar content of the fruit while maximum TSS to acid ratio was also recorded in these two treatments. Based on results, it could be said that the foliar as well as the soil application of PP333 is highly effective for controlling shy bearing problem with minimal fruit drop and improved fruit quality resulting higher productivity of marketable fruits of better quality.
K. Swathi, Tejaswini and K.V.Jayaprasad
Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesserghatta, Bangaluru-560089, India
Abstract: Petunia is one of the important bedding plants and occupies an ever increasing demand in flower seed industry. The present study was carried out to evaluate various selfing techniques to identify the efficient one for the production of large quantity of seeds in short duration to facilitate inbred development. Different selfing techniques like threading, manual pollination, bagging of single bud and bagging of multiple buds were tried in three inbred lines and also their interactions were studied. The results indicated that bagging of multiple buds took minimum days to seed set, higher pod weight and highest number of seeds/mg. Seed germination percentage was high in manual pollination followed by bagging of multiple buds. Inbred lines IIHRP-WT gave best results as compared to other inbred lines. Interaction of this inbred line with bagging of multiple buds gave good seed quality results like higher pod weight and number of seeds/mg.
Durga Singh, R.P.S. Shaktawat and I.S. Naruka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra and Department of Plantation and Spice Crops, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (MP)-458001 India
Abstract: Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci L.) is a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.) of family Alliaceae in India and widely spread in summer season. For the control of its infestation, the crop is sprayed intensively with insecticides. In order to find out the most efficient and eco-friendly method of thrips control, an experiment was conducted at Shajapur (M.P.) during the year 2007 and 2008 to assess the thrips population. Thrips population was counted at 15 days interval. Thrips population was peaked in February when they reached the maximum mean values ranging between 15.30 and 153.45 thrips per plant. The seven treatments of insecticides i.e. fipronil 5 % SC, lambda-cyhalothrin 5 % EC, lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS, thiacloprid 21.7 % SC, deltamethrin 11 % w/w EC, malathion 50 % EC were applied at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting of onion crop for management of onion thrips. Among all the insecticides applied fipronil 5 % SC and lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS was the most effective insecticide in reducing the thrips population and increasing the weight of exportable bulb and yield of onion as compare to control and other insecticides. Fipronil 5 % SC treatment reduced the thrips population by 98.56 percent over control and increased the bulb yield by 124.90 percent compared with control.
U. Amala, D.S. Yadav and A.M. Bhosale
Department of Entomology, National Research Centre of Grapes, Solapur Road, P.B. No. 3, Manjri Farm, Pune - 412 307, Maharashtra, India
Abstract: Survey was conducted to investigate the parasitoid complex of mealybug infesting grapes in the vineyards during 2012 to 2013. The parasitized mummies of mealybugs were collected and held in the test tubes until the parasitoid emerged out. The emerged parasitoids were identified and preserved. Three encyrtid parasitoids viz., Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault, Anagyrus dactylopii Howard, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard were found to effect parasitization of the mealybugs. A. dactylopii was found specific to pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. L. dacylopii and C. perminutus were found parasitizing Planococcus citri. Percent parasitization of mealybug by C. perminutus, A. dactylopii andL. dactylopii was 56.25, 72.72 and 81.81 per cent, respectively during the peak incidence of mealybugs. Mean population of C. perminutus A. dactylopii and L. dactylopii were 6.3, 5.4 and 5.9 individuals per vine.
Sheikh Khursheed, Desh Raj and Nisar A. Ganie
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University Palampur-176 062 (H.P.) India.
Key words: Red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis, cucumber, population dynamics
Abstract: The population dynamics of Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas in relation to abiotic factors was studied on cucumber (Cucumis sativus), var. 'Khira-90' during 2009 and 2010. Incidence of red pumpkin beetle in field indicated that its initial activity and peak period varied with the locations and prevailing weather conditions. At Palampur, the insect was found active from second fortnight of April with three peaks during 2nd and 4th weeks of May and 3rd week of July, 2009 whereas, one major peak during 2nd week of May was recorded in 2010. At farmer's field, Bara (Hamirpur) the insect first appearance was noticed during first fortnight of March and reached to its peak during 3rd and 2nd weeks of April, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The highest plant infestation (100 %) was observed when the crop was at its early growing stage. The correlation studies revealed that average minimum temperature showed significant negative correlation at farmer's field whereas other weather parameters had no significant effect on the beetle population at Palampur as well as Bara.
Hassan A. Hamouda, A.A. El-Sayed, Mohamed M. El-Fouly, A.A. Fawzi, B.M. Mansour and H.A. Bosila
Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki-Egypt
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate which nitrogen source gives the highest vegetative growth, nutrient uptake and highest nitrogen use efficiency of Ocimum canum plant. Nutrient film technique was used to grow O. canum using different nitrogen sources; Nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate) (N), urea (U) and Ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Results showed that in general, growth parameters and nutrient uptake by whole plant and different plant organs were significantly higher in nitrate treatment in comparison with the other sources. The nutrient solution containing ammonium nitrate gave the highest number of leaves, number of branches, height and leaf area per plant, as well as fresh and dry weights. Nitrogen use efficiency of N treatment (57 %) was a little bit higher than of AN (53 %), while U nitrogen utilization was much lower (NUE = 31). In conclusion, when growing O. canum using NFT, it is recommended that N should be supplied as ammonium nitrate.
Sharmistha Naik, Poonam and Vishal Rana
Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230, India.
Abstract: Insufficient pollination due to asynchrony between staminate and pistillate blossoms in kiwifruit and unfavourable environmental conditions results in reduced fruit size and unequal fruit shape. In the present investigation an attempt was made to develop a simple and reliable method for storage of kiwifruit pollen and their utilization in hand pollination in following year. Pollen were stored at different temperatures [room temperature (25 ? 2 0C), 4, 0 and -20 0C] for a period of one year. Pollen viability was determined at monthly intervals using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and percent in vitro germination using 14 % sucrose,1.7 mM calcium nitrate and 3mM Boric acid. Initial TTC stainability (78.83 %), in vitro germination (65.55%) and absolute viability (51.72 %) of fresh pollen went on reducing with storage periods. -20 0C was the best temperature at which maximum viability of kiwifruit pollen can be retained up to one year. Pollination using pollen stored for one year showed that pollen stored at -20 0C were able to set 100 % fruits, pollen stored at 0 0C could set 36 % fruits, while there was no fruit setting with pollen stored at room temperature and 4 0C. These findings have practical implications for kiwifruit production in India. Artificial pollination with stored pollen can circumvent several uncertainties of natural pollination and guarantee adequate pollination in kiwifruit.
C.S. Ravi, B.S. Sreeramu, A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda and G.R. Smitha
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065, Karnataka, India.
Abstract: Evaluation of seventeen genotypes of makoi (Solanum nigrum L.) revealed maximum dry herbage yield in MG-1 (209.07 g) followed by MG-14 (161.73 g). While, for total alkaloid content the genotype MG-13 (0.23 % w/w) recorded highest followed by MG-16 (0.22 %w/w). The genotype MG-14 had maximum total alkaloid yield (12.26 kg ha-1) followed by MG-13 (11.91 kg ha-1). Result of genetic studies revealed that phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits studied, indicating environmental influence on expression of these characters. Both GCV and PCV were high for total alkaloid yield, moderate to high for remaining traits and low for days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was recorded for leaf area, total alkaloid content and total alkaloid yield indicating the presence of additive gene effects. Hence, selection can be employed for improvement of these characters in makoi. Dry herbage yield per plant was found to be positive and highly significant genotypic association with fresh herbage yield, leaf area, number of leaves, plant spread and plant height and significant with total alkaloid content. The total alkaloid yield had positive and highly significant genotypic correlation with total alkaloid content. The total alkaloid yield had the maximum direct positive effect on dry herbage yield followed by number of leaves and fresh herbage yield. The total alkaloid content and dry herbage yield had the maximum direct effect on total alkaloid yield.
M.R. Choudhary, S. Dadheech, S.P. Singh and R.S. Dhaka
S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Distt. Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract: Dried lasoda fruits are generally used as off-season vegetable in kitchen for preparing curry, pickle, 'Pachkutta', a special five star hotel dish and snacks. The aim of the study was to determine effect of concentration of magnesium oxide and drying method on quality attributes of lasoda fruits viz., protein content, ascorbic acid, organoleptic acceptance, solid gain ratio and minimum non-enzymatic browning (NEB). Mature, green and uniform sized lasoda fruits were selected and blanched in various concentrations of magnesium oxide (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 %) before drying and dried under different drying methods (open sun, solar and oven). The statistically better quality dried lasoda fruits were obtained when blanched with 0.2 % magnesium oxide solution and dried in a solar drier.
Margaret Chiipanthenga,, Moses Maliro, Paul Demo, Joyce Njoloma, and Navin Khumar
Bunda college of Agriculture, University of Malawi
Abstract: Potato yields in developing countries are below potential yield because potato production is mainly constrained by lack of quality seed. Lack of potato seed systems to provide farmers with quality clean and certified potato seed has led majority of farmers save their own seed. Such potato seed is characterized by systemic viral and bacterial diseases that are transmitted from generation to generation and this leads to low crop yields. The study was aimed at exploring the use of tissue culture and aeroponics techniques in the production of quality potato seed. Potato plantlets were produced in the tissue culture laboratory at Bvumbwe Research Station, 15? 41' 0" South, 35? 8' 0" East in Thyolo district of Malawi and then transferred to an aeroponics facility at Njuli Estate, 15? 41' 0" South, 35? 8' 0" East in Chiradzulu district of Malawi. The four potato genotypes did not differ on plant growth performance, but responded differently to aeroponics system in terms of mini tuber yield and stolon numbers. Genotypes CIP381381.20 and CIP381381.13 showed superiority among the other tested genotypes in terms of tuber number per plant. Genotype CIP381381.20 produced significantly higher number of stolons than the rest. In this study, on an average 30 tubers were produced per plant under aeroponics system which is six times more than the conventional (use of soil-based substrate) seed potato production system under screen house conditions (5 tubers per plant) under Malawian conditions.
S. Chehaibi, B. Douh, El B. Mohandes Dridi and M.W. Hadj Bechir
Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, University of Sousse, Tunisia
Abstract: Demand for organic produce is expected to increase due to increasing concern in urban society about food quality. However, crop management options are extremely limited in an organic system, often leading to reduced yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different mechanical planting densities (3.05 and 3.91 plant/m2) and depths (0.07 and 0.12 m) on the agronomic parameters under organic culture. Field study was conducted at the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, Tunisia from February to June. The results indicate that different treatment combinations could affect the vigor and growth of the plant, size of tubers and weight of fresh and dry matter of different plant organs, as well as the final yield. Moreover, it was shown that planting in-row spacing of 0.41 m and depth of 0.12 m improved the growth parameters of the plant. This study showed that there is a relationship between the number of plants per square meter and the crop yield. Indeed, yields with the density of 3.91plant/m2 was higher than that of 3.05 plant/m2 (13.75 and 10.83 t/ha, respectively).
S.M. Chavan, Sushil Kumarand S.S. Arve
Department of Entomology, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India.
Abstract: Investigation on the population dynamics and evaluation of pest management modules against major insect pests of tomato were carried out at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, south Gujarat in rabi, 2007-08. Results revealed that aphid and whitefly population commenced from transplanting with 1.35 aphids leaf-1 and 0.37 whiteflies leaf-1, reached to peak level (7.31 aphids leaf-1and 6.01 whiteflies leaf-1) at 11 WAT. Peak level of percent infested leaves by leaf miner was 31.75 % at 10th WAT. The higher population of Helicoverpa on foliage (2.80-3.40 plant1) was noticed during third week of January to end of February (10-16 WAT). The population of mirid bug, which acts as a potential predator of sucking pests reached peak (1.90-2.05 plant-1) when population of aphid and whitefly reached maximum. Correlation studies between insect pest population/damage and weather parameters showed that there was significant negative correlation of aphid (r=-0.491) and whitefly (r=-0.449) with maximum temperature and negative significant correlation with minimum temperature (r=-0.645, r=-0.599). Further, the wind velocity showed significantly positive correlation with aphid (r=0.574) and whitefly (r=0.534) population. The wind velocity gave positive and significant correlation with the population of mirid bug as natural enemies. The IPM module was found most promising in reducing the population of aphids (2.1 leaf-1), whitefly (2.4 leaf-1), Helicoverpa larva (1.0 plant1) on foliage. Besides, it reduced leaf infestation by leaf miner (17.8 %) and fruit infestation by Helicoverpa (15.4 %) and increased yield (36445 kg ha1). The sole insecticidal module was equally effective as IPM module in recording low population of aphids (2.2 leaf-1), whitefly (2.5 leaf-1), Helicoverpa (1.1 plant1), leaf infestation (18.3 %), fruits infestation (16.3 %) and also increased fruit yield (34684 kg ha-1). The biological module and botanical module ranked third and fourth in efficacy with respect to pest control. Besides pest management, population of mirid bugs (0.8 plant-1) as natural enemy was also conserved in IPM module. The net ICBR obtained in IPM module was 1:9.45 which was comparable to the insecticidal module (1:15.92).
Saurabh Kulshrestha, Anshul Sharma and Chandrika Attri Seth
Faculty of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Bajhol, Solan, HimachalPradesh, India.
Key words: TSWV, Thrips, L RNA, M RNA, S RNA, Intergenic region
Abstract: Advances in understanding of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) molecular biology are reviewed. TSWV, a type species of the genus Tospovirus, is an enveloped virus that causes high economical losses in many crops worldwide. It is transmitted by several species of thrips and multiplies in insect cells. The most important vector is Frankliniella occidentalis which transmits TSWV in a persistent propagative manner. Several factors are known from both virus and vector side which plays important role in virus acquisition by thrips and its subsequent transfer. TSWV is a segmented negatively strand RNA virus. RNA of TSWV is partitioned among three negative or ambisense single stranded RNA (ssRNA) labeled as L, M and S in order of decreasing size, (approximately 8897, 4821 and 2916 nucleotides long, respectively). These RNA segments encode various proteins like N and Ns by S RNA; NSm and G1/G2 by M RNA and RdRp by L RNA. Intergenic region present in M and S RNA of TSWV helps in proper transcription of different genes encoded by M and S RNA. The different proteins encoded by TSWV genome help the virus in protection, cellular movements, vector transmission, replication and recently in RNA silencing suppressor activity. The present review focuses on basic structure, genome organization, molecular basis of transmission and recent advances in TSWV detection.
Joseph P. Albano, Kim D. Bowman and P. Chris Wilson
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945-3030, USA.
Abstract: Florida citrus groves that have been under continuous production for many years often have high levels of soil-fraction copper (Cu) from the use of Cu-containing fertilizers and pesticides. On such groves, citrus trees may develop Cu toxicity, a disorder that impacts both plant growth and nutrition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and nutritional response of six citrus rootstock seedling varieties grown in sand in 3.8 L containers to increasing concentrations of Cu-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CuEDTA). Citrus rootstocks included in the study were: 'Swingle' citrumelo [SC (Citrusparadisi x Poncirus trifoliata)], 'Volkamer' lemon [VL (C. volkameriana)], 'Cleopatra' mandarin [CM (Citrus reticulata)], 'Flying Dragon' trifoliate [FD (P trifoliata)], 'US-812' [US812 ('Sunki' mandarin x 'Benecke' trifoliate)], and 'US-897' [US897 (CMx FD)]. Incorporated into a complete nutrient solution, Cu was supplied at 0.05, 0.25, 1.00 and 2.00 mg L-1. Citrus rootstock but not Cu treatment was significant for root and leaf dry mass with FD and VL having the least and greatest total plant dry mass, respectively. Rootstock and Cu treatment was significant for root and leaf Cu. As a mean of Cu treatments, foliar Cu ranged from 4.05 ug g-1 (CM) to 7.74 ug g-1 (US812); and root Cu ranged from 30.18 ug g-1 (FD) to 61.08 ug g-1 (VL). Rootstock but not Cu treatment was significant for Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn. 'Volkamer' lemon had significantly higher levels of foliar Ca, K, and Mg than the other rootstocks; and along with US812, the highest level of foliar Fe. For all nutrients analyzed except for Mg, accumulation was greater in roots than in leaves. Magnesium, as a mean of rootstocks, accumulated equally in roots and leaves. Subjective visual observations of plants at harvest for nutrient disorder revealed that young terminal-growth leaves of VL and SC in the highest Cu treatment (2.00 mg L-1) showed few to pronounced symptoms of a micronutrient-type disorder, respectively, that correlated with increasing Cu treatment. Based on visual symptoms in the highest Cu treatment (interveinal chlorosis and leaf/leaflet deformation/cupping), plants segregated as follows from greatest to least expression of the observed micronutrient-like disorder: SC > CM/FD > US812/US897 > VL.
Dennis J. Carey, Barbara A. Fair, Wayne Buhler, Ingram McCall and Brian E. Whipker
Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609,
Abstract: Foliar sprays of benzyladenine (BA) at concentrations of 100 to 1600 mg L1 were applied 14 days after potting (DAP) onto Salvia nemorosa (L.) Caradonna' to determine if it would increase branching and flowering. At 28 DAP, BA foliar sprays > 400 mg L1 controlled plant height, > 200 mg L1 resulted in smaller plant diameter, 100 mg L1 controlled growth index and inhibited flowering. Phytotoxicity in the form of leaf edge necrosis was observed at 1600 mg L1 BA. Flowering was delayed by two to three weeks with > 400 mg L1 BA, however the plants were more compact, and the total number of flower stalks produced increased by 350 %. Total growing time to achieve maximum increased flower stalk number was an additional 21 days and growers will have to determine if the trade-off of flower delay is worth having more compact plants with 350 % more flowers. In a second experiment, BA was applied 13 DAP as a foliar spray at 0, 125, 250 and 500 mg L-1 to Salvia 'Ultra Violet', Salvia Marcus?, and Salvia 'May Night'. Plant height, number of flowering shoots, and flowering dates were recorded. Growth control effect was not observed with BA on 'Ultra Violet' plants, and control effect was limited and inconsistent for both 'May Night' and Marcus?. Thus, cultivar response to BA varies, and individual trials will have to be conducted to determine BA suitability as a growth enhancer.
Z. Nasr, M.L. Khouja, R. Aini, A. Hammadi, H. Manai and B. Mimouni
Institut National de la Recherche en Genie Rural, Eaux et Forets Rue Hedi Karray, BP10 2080 Ariana - Tunisia
Abstract: Bio-diesel crops are presented as a potential tool to mitigate global warming. However, these crops are often highly water consuming, which limits their use in semi-arid areas. In this respect, the Jatropha is considered by many researchers as the most appropriate species in these dry conditions. The aim of our investigation was to study the possibility of its use in Tunisia regarding its behavior in semi-arid area of the north-west region. Eight provenances of Jatropha curcas L. introduced from Brazilia (5), Surinam (1), Mosambic (1) and Tanzania (1) were compared on the basis of their ecophysiological performance. Results showed variability in photosynthesis, leaf transpiration, chlorophyll content and leaf growth between accessions during the growing season. Average photosynthesis and leaf transpiration values ranged from 7 to 13 Limol m-2 s-1 and from 2.5 to 3.5 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Specific dry matter per unit leaf area varied from 50 g m-2 to 90 g m-2. Provenances from the Mozambic and Prana with the lowest biomass per unit leaf area and high photosynthetic capacity are more likely to offer greater productivity in semi-arid zone.
Abstract: Improved protocol for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of tomato cultivar, "Dhanshree" was developed by optimizing various parameters that affect transformation efficiency. In the present investigation, Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harboring a pBI121: gus gene construct was used for transformation. The kanamycin concentration was standardized and 50 mg/L was found to be optimum based on lethal effect to the explants. Effect of varying concentration of Agrobacterium on the transformation efficiency of cotyledon explants revealed that the concentration of 0.2 at OD 600 was optimum. Cotyledons proved to be better for transformation as compared to hypocotyls and leaf explants. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained in 7-14 days old cotyledon which was precultured for one day on the MS medium containing 2 mg/L zeatin and 0.2 mg/L IAA. It was then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 3 days on the same medium composition used for preculture. Subsequently the explants were transferred to selective shooting medium supplemented with 50 mg/L kanamycin, 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 250 mg/L carbenicillin. These explants were maintained for 6-8 weeks which resulted in more than 12 % transformation efficiency as judged by GUS assay technique.
F.R.Torpy, P.J. Irga, D. Moldovan, J. Tarran and M.D. Burchett
Plants and Indoor Environmental Quality Group, Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney; PO Box 123 Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
Abstract: Over 900 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in indoor air, where they cause acute and chronic health problems to building occupants. Potted-plants can significantly reduce VOC levels in indoor air, the root-zone bacteria of the potting mix effecting most of the VOC biodegradation. In this study, a baseline community level physiological profile (CLPP) was established for the potting mix bacteria of the indoor plant species, Spathiphyllum wallisii 'Petite', using Biolog EcoPlates, to provide information on the functional abilities of this community. Changes in the CLPP resulting from benzene exposure were then determined and following the identification of the carbon sources associated with changes in the CLPP, biostimulant solutions were formulated and applied to fresh potted-plant specimens. Biostimulation of benzene removal was observed, with increases in removal rates of about 15%, providing proof-of-concept for the biostimulation of this process. The findings further elucidate the mechanisms of bacterial activity associated with removal of indoor airborne benzene, and could be applied to increase VOC biodegradation rates, augmenting the uses of indoor plants in improving building environmental quality.
G.O. Nkansah, A.K. Ahwireng, C. Amoatey and A.W. Ayarna
Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural Research, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of the University of Ghana Forest and Horticultural Crop Research Centre (FOHCREC), Okumaning-Kade to investigate the effect of grafting on growth, yield, disease resistance and fruit quality of tomatoes grafted onto two different African eggplant rootstocks. Two commercial tomato varieties ('Tropimech' and 'Roma') were used as scions and two African eggplant varieties ('Aworoworo' and 'Green') were used as rootstocks. The scion/rootstock combinations or treatments were 'Roma/Green', 'Tropimech/Green', 'Roma/Aworoworo', 'Tropimech/Aworoworo', 'Roma/Roma', 'Tropimech/Tropimech', and Roma non-grafted (control) and Tropimech nongrafted (control). The results indicated that, grafted tomatoes on African eggplant rootstocks performed better in terms of growth, yield, earliness, disease incidence and shelf life than non-grafted or control plants. Pooled mean data indicated significant differences in terms of percent fruit set, fruit number and weight among the treatments. Percent fruit set was higher for tomato on Africa eggplant (67.9) compared to the self grafted (58.7) and the control (52.6). Fruit number/plant and yield of tomato on the African eggplant was 16.2 and 1120.7g/plant compared to the control (10.8 and 916g/plant) while the self grafted had 13.2 and 1064.9g/plant, respectively. The shelf life of grafted tomatoes onto egg plant was significantly higher (25.4 days) compared to control (13.6 days). Grafting did not significantly affect Brix (%), pH and acidity of tomato. Grafted plants significantly recorded low disease incidence compared to non-grafted ones. The study indicated that the use of grafting on eggplant in the humid forest zone of Ghana can boost tomato production considerably.
T. Damodaran, Shailendra Rajan, Ram Kumar, D.K. Sharma, V.K. Misra, S.K. Jha and R.B. Rai
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, RRS, Lucknow, India
Abstract: The study includes collection of polyembryonic mango types from tsunami affected areas of the South Andaman district where trees are under natural selection pressure for salt tolerance and screening of collections against high sodium in sodic soils ex situ. Forty two accessions were located and collected on the basis of phenotypic expression and indentation level in tsunami. Out of which 15 diverse polyembryony types from different locations were evaluated for survival and growth in sodic soils of pHe 9.51 and sodium (Na+) 21.20 meq/L at Lucknow. The mortality percentage and relationship between the salt tolerance potential of the selections and Na+ / K+ ratio, root length and shoot length were investigated. Based on mortality in ex situ screening, collected types were classified into different groups. An increase in pH and Na+ concentrations led to higher mortality (96.67 -100.00 %) in polyembronic seedlings when compared to salt tolerant types (3.33-16.678 %). Six accessions GPL-1, GPL-3, ML-3, ML-4, ML-2 and GPL-4 exhibited tolerance to high soil sodium content and pH. Accessions GPL-1 and ML-2 collected from sites affected by inundation of sea water during tsunami under acid saline soil conditions were found to have the highest tolerance level. These accessions accumulated comparatively higher amounts of K+ ions in leaves than other accessions. They also had lower Na+ / K+ ratio which was even lower than the other tolerant collections. The collections demonstrated an increase in the root and shoot length and significant negative correlation with mortality of the seedlings (r= 0.97 and 0.98, respectively). The study revealed the importance of natural selection of mango polyembryony seedlings for salt tolerance and scope of its utilization.
Mona M. Hassan, Ibrahim A. Ibrahim, Mohsen K.H. Ebrahim and Ewald Komor
Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Abstract: This study presents a procedure for the rapid development of a large number of somatic embryos and shoots from seven date palm cultivars (Barthamuda, Sakkoty, Malkaby, Shamia, Khalas, Barhee and Medjool). Clusters of leaf meristem explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid and cytokinins (benzyl adenine, kinetin or 2-isopentenyl adenine) at 0.05 or 0.1 mg/L, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal. Regeneration to newly formed embryos and shoot formation was significantly (P<0.05) promoted in all cultivars using a culture medium with 0.05 mg/L benzyl adenine in the absence of activated charcoal. The presence of charcoal was inhibitory to shoot formation in all cases, except on the medium with 0.05 mg/L benzyl adenine, where it stimulated 33% shoot formation. This medium plus activated charcoal is therefore the recommended one for shoot formation. The number of somatic embryos and shoots generated was greatest with cultivars Barthamuda, Barhee and Sakkoty, while Medjool had the lowest number. The healthy shoots were suitable for acclimatization to form plantlets in soil.
H.M. Mahadeva Swamy, S.N. Nagesha, Prakash M. Navale, T.K.S. Gowda, R. Asokanand Riaz Mahmood
Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065
Abstract: Insect-resistant crops have been one of the major successes of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture. There is an urgent need for improvement in vegetable production, especially in developing countries where the economic, health and environmental benefits of bioengineered vegetables could be of great importance. In this view a synthetic cry1F gene coding for an insecticidal crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was transformed to cabbage cultivar 'Hare Krishna' by co-cultivating hypocotyls explants with AAgrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The transformed plants resistant to kanamycin were regenerated on selection medium. Confirmation of transgene in putatively transformed plants was carried out by using nptII and crylF gene specific primers. Multiple shoot regeneration of hypocotyl and shoot tip explants of cabbage after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium was optimized and medium containing 2 mg/L BAP was observed to be the best for shoot regeneration after co-cultivation. In this study, 45 and 32.5% transformation efficiencies were achieved for hypocotyl and cotyledonary leaf explants, respectively using the optimized procedure.
Farhat Naz, Jalal-Ud-Din Baloch, M. Munir and A.A. Khakwani
Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK. Pakistan;Frontier Agriculture, SOYL Division, Recommendations Dept., Newbury, United Kingdom
Key words: Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, growth and development, growing media
Abstract: The seedlings of Antirrhinum majus L. cv. 'Orchid Rocket Mixed' at four leaf stage (two cotyledonary leaves and two true leaves) were planted in 15 cm diameter pots containing seven combinations of plant growing media viz., river sand, silt, leaf mold, river sand+silt (1:1), river sand+leaf mold (1:1), silt+leaf mold (1:1) and river sand+silt+leaf mold (1:1:1). The experiment was laid out in 'Randomised Complete Design' while each pot was considered as a replicate. Three equally spaced plants were kept in one pot in one replication and there were three replications in each treatment. Plant growth and development parameters indicated that plant height was significantly (P<0.05) affected by growing media and time interval. Plants grown in leaf mold attained maximum height than the other treatments. A linear and significant (P<0.05) increase in leaf development was observed in seven growing media such as plants grown in leaf mold media produced maximum number of leaves than the others. Similarly, plants grown in leaf mold media took minimum time to flowering, maximum number of flower buds per spike, maximum number of branches per plant, and maximum stem, leaf and plant fresh and dry weight.
S. Sarkar, A. Saha, P. Hazra and M. Pandit
Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Candra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal, India
Abstract: The aim of the study was to workout relationship between phenological development and yield of snapmelon in relation to temperature that could be predicted with easily obtainable weather station data and used as an aid in projecting harvest dates along with potential yield. Temperature is one of the most important elements of the climate which determines the potential productivity level of a crop. Heat unit requirement was used for characterizing the thermal response in snapmelon (Cucumis melo var. momordica)for the assessment of yield potential of a crop in different growing environments. A field experiment was carried out to find out the phenophasic development and yield attributes of snapmelon in relation to ambient air temperature and to find out suitable varieties for commercial cultivation of snapmelon with eight genotypes as influenced by three sowing dates. The studies revealed that the snapmelon sown on 22nd January, accumulated lower number of growing degree days with higher heat use efficiency, among the genotypes tried. Efficiency of converting thermal regime to yield formation was higher when the crop was sown on 22nd January and it decreased with the delayed sowing. A sharp decline in crop duration as well as days to flowering occurred with the rise in temperature irrespective of the varieties. Where as fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit length were varietal characteristics and not influenced by the different environmental conditions. Genotype IC-102K-Bh (V4) was found to be the best cultivar with regard to early female flower initiation and yield as the cultivar utilized the thermal regime for yield most efficiently.
S. Muthu Kumar and V. Ponnuswami
Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract: A lab experiment was conducted on a Hybrid Tea rose variety "First Red" to study the effect of 1-Methyl Cyclo Propene on post harvest quality of cut rose flowers. Pretreatment of flower stem with 1-Methyl Cyclo Propene was carried out in airtight chamber. The experiment was laid with 0.18 % of 1-MCP / m3 for 6 hours and 0.18 % of 1-MCP / 2m3 for 6 hours along with control. The treatment 0.18 % of 1-MCP / m3 for 6 hours recorded the lowest mean values for physiological loss in weight (11.43 per cent), loss of membrane integrity (31.63 per cent), transpirational loss of water (5.23 g stalk-1) and peroxidase activity (0.031 units g-1 of fresh weight) during the entire vase life period while the control recorded the highest mean values for physiological loss in weight (25.36 per cent), loss of membrane integrity (53.82 per cent), transpirational loss of water (8.44 g stalk-1) and peroxidase activity (0.057 units g-1 of fresh weight). Besides, the cut rose flowers treated with 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours had highest relative water content of 78.16 per cent and water uptake of 6.80 g stalk-1. Flowers exposed to 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours maintained higher mean values for appearance (score 4 - very good) and stem strength (82.40 o angle) during the entire course of study. The cut rose flowers exposed to 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours had significantly enhanced the vase life and recorded the longest vase life of 4.3 days whereas the control recorded the shortest vase life of 2.6 days.
C. Thangamani and L. Pugalendhi
Department of vegetable crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, India
Key words: Momordica charantia L., diallel mating, diverse parents, relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis, standard heterosis, earliness, yield and quality
Abstract: Evaluation of ninety hybrids of bitter gourd resulting from full diallel mating of ten genetically diverse genotypes for earliness, yield and quality characters had revealed the presence of heterotic vigour. Fifty nine hybrid combinations were found to exhibit negative significant heterobeltiosis for days to first female flower appearance and the hybrid CO-1 x GL had registered favourable values for this trait. The hybrid CO-1 x MC-105 registered negative significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for node at which the first female flower appears. The heterosis for sex ratio was found to be in the desired direction in UB x GL and seventy six hybrids showed significant negative heterobeltiosis for sex ratio. The highest significant relative heterosis (KR x UB) and heterobeltiosis (MC-10 x KR) for fruit length was also observed. The highest positive and significant standard heterosis was observed in the hybrid Priyanka x GL for fruit length. The estimate of heterobeltiosis for fruit weight had shown positively significant value for fifteen hybrids, and it was the highest in KR x USL. Among the ninety hybrids, sixteen hybrids had registered positive and significant heterobeltiosis values for number of fruits per vine, and the hybrid Preethi x MC-30 had the highest value for this trait. The highest positive heterobeltiosis for yield of fruits per vine was recorded in KR x USL followed by Preethi x MC-30. However, the estimates of standard heterosis for fruit yield revealed that the hybrid Preethi x MC-30 had the highest positive significant value followed by the hybrid KR x USL. In order of merit the hybrids viz., Preethi x MC-30, KR x USL and MC-105 x MC-10 were noted to be the top performing hybrids with respect to yield and quality parameters since they had showed significant heterotic values.
Henry A. Akintoye, Olusola O. AdeOluwa, Olukemi Y. Akinkunmi
Floriculture Improvement Programme, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B.5432, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Abstract: Experiments were conducted over a two-year cropping season to determine the effect of growth media on rooting, growth and flowering. Nine growth media viz., river sand (RS), topsoil + poultry manure (T+P), topsoil (T), river sand + poultry manure (RS+P), sawdust (S), topsoil + river sand + poultry manure (T+RS+P), topsoil + sawdust (T+S), sawdust + river sand (S+RS), topsoil + poultry manure + river sand + sawdust (T+P+RS+S) were used for the study. It was found that growth media significantly (P>0.05) affected the number of branches and branch length per plant; number of leaves and number of flowers per plant. The quantity of flowers produced per week varied according to each growth media as follows: Begonia planted in topsoil + poultry manure (4:1) produced the highest number of flowers per plant, while sawdust + river sand (3:1) produced the least number of branches per plant, branch length per plant, number of leaves per plant and number of flowers per plant in the two years of the experiment. The slow growth, poor development and late blooming in soil + sawdust (4:1) and sawdust + river sand (3:1), could be as a result of inadequate nutrients in the substrates. Topsoil + poultry manure (4:1) growth medium (with or without river sand), appeared to be the suitable growth medium that will significantly enhance early rooting, establishment, growth and development of beefsteak begonia and sustain flower production for a good length of time.
Facultadde Ciencias Agrarias, UNMDPy Estacion ExperimentalAgropecuaria, INTA. CC 276, 7620Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract: During 2008 to 2010 growing seasons, three trials were conducted on fungicide treatment of soil and seed tuber for control of potato black scurf at INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina in randomized complete block design. Before planting, fungicides Monceren 25SC (pencycuron 25%) at 1.25 L/t and Celest 25FS (fludioxinil 2.5%) at 0.5 L/t were sprayed on potato whole seeds. After planting, the same fungicides were sprayed on each row at 2.5 and 1.0 L ha-1, respectively. Whole healthy (no symptons) and diseased (15-20% surface covered by sclerotia) seeds of Kennebec cultivar were used. Artificial inoculations to the soil were made with Rhizoctonia solani AG3 anastomosys group. Disease incidence was registered every year. Yields were recorded and each tuber was goruped according to health. Fungicides showed better results than both checks and reduced plant disease incidence in the field. Inoculated check showed 50% of unhealthy plants while the fungicides reduced it to 10%. Yield increase of marketable tubers was 42% better in fungicide treatments than in the inoculated check. Both fungicides produced more healthy tubers than the inoculated check or uninoculated check. Yield increase of healthy tubers was 45% higher when compared with the inoculated check. Fungicide seed treatment was better when disease seeds were used and fungicide soil treatment was better than healthy seeds.
Abstract: Fruit and shoot management in peaches (Prunus persica L.) is an important intervention to improve fruit quality and its yield . Studies were conducted through on-farm trials at farmer's fields in Ropar (Punjab) district during 2006-2009 to evaluate the technology of pruning and fruit thinning and its effects on crop yield and fruit quality in six-year-old peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab trees with three treatments viz., T1=50% pruning of fruitful shoots + cutting of dead and diseased wood in early-January, T2=T1+ Fruit thinning during mid-March and T3=No pruning and no fruit thinning (Farmer Practice-FP). The pruning treatments caused the development of an abundant number of long shoots, which are valuable for fruiting. Mean fruit yield was 50 kg per plant in T1; 48 kg per plant in T2 and 32 kg per plant in T3 (FP). Mean fruit yield was 56.25 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and by 50.00% higher in T2 over T3 (FP). Results revealed that mean fruit weights were 55.10, 70.10 and 41.00 grams in T1, T2 and T3 respectively during 2006-07. Mean fruit weight was 34.39 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and it was 70.97 % higher in T2 over T3 . Similar trend was observed during the following years 2008 & 2009 at all the locations except in 2009 where non-significant reduction in fruit yield was noticed in T2 over T3 . The highest benefit cost ratio was obtained in T2 (3.31) followed by T1 (3.20) and T3 (2.32). It was concluded that economic fruit yield can significantly be obtained by imposing 50% pruning of fruited shoots and cutting of dead and diseased wood during early January followed by fruit thinning in mid- March in peaches cv. Shan-i- Punjab in sub mountain zone of Punjab.