Research Agronomist and Research Soil Scientist, Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), 6883 South State Highway 23, Booneville, Arkansas 72927. USA
Abstract: Our objective was to determine temporal effects on medium pH caused by decomposition of three organic amendments incorporated with topsoil. Pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark, pine (Pinus taeda L.) straw, and red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)were ground to uniform particle size, incorporated with a silt loam topsoil at two rates (1:29 and 1:10 amendment:soil, w:w basis, referred to as 1X and 3X, respectively), placed into greenhouse pots, and sampled during 12 months to determine medium pH in comparison to an unamended topsoil (control). Compared to the control, pine straw, pine bark, and red oak 3X increased soil medium pH. All media except pine straw increased pH during the study. At any given sampling date, pine straw 3X had lower pH than the control, while red oak either did not differ from, or had higher pH than the control. By the end of the sampling period, pine bark and pine straw media had lower pH than the control. While statistically significant, change in medium pH caused by any of these substances would be trivial for most horticultural crops, and easily corrected by use of other liming or acidifying amendments.
ThiNghiem Le, ChingChang Shiesh, HueyLing Lin and Elsa Lee
Graduate School of Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University. 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan.
Abstract: The objective of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of Vapour heat treatments (VHT) to disinfest the Taiwan native mango variety fruits (Tuu Shien) from the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and the effect of the treatments on the quality of mango fruits. The three stage treatment of forced air at 30oC for 30 minutes, 30 to 48oC for 60 minutes, and then 48oC forced hot air with saturated humidity over the mango fruit surface until the fruit centre temperature reached 46.5oC and fruit was held for 40 minutes. Survival tests showed that both second and third generation instars were more susceptible to the VHT than eggs and there were no surviving oriental fruit fly after 46.5oC for 40 min. The quality of local mango fruits treated with VHT and stored at ambient temperature (28 ? 3oC) for 6 days was not significantly different from the control.
School of Economics and Business Administration, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway.
Key words: Flower markets, flower production and trade, volatility, Dutch flower auctions, price analysis
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of international flower production, consumption and trade, focusing on the Dutch flower auctions in Aalsmeer, the world's leading flower trading centre. Data on prices and traded volumes for three important species of cut flowers (roses, chrysanthemums and carnations) for the period 1993-2008 are analyzed. Flower prices and traded volumes are extremely volatile. Although part of this volatility is predictable, because of regular seasonal variations in demand, a large proportion of the observed volatility is due to sudden shifts in supply. The real prices of cut flowers declined during this period, and there was a clear shift in consumer preferences toward roses and away from carnations. In addition, consumption of roses and carnations shifted from clearly seasonal toward more year-round consumption, while consumption of chrysanthemums followed consistent seasonal cycles throughout the period. During this period, non-European producers increased their market shares. This development can be traced to a significant decrease in cut flower prices relative to energy prices, especially after 2003.
Esfandiyari, G.H. Davary Nejad, F.A. Shahriyariand M. Kiani
Horticulture Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Plant Research In
Key words: Pistcia spp, sex identification, SCAR- PCR, juvenile stage.
Abstract: Sex identification in Pistacia species are economically desirable. Regarding long juvenile stage in Pistacia species and lack of morphological method to identify sex in this stage, molecular marker could facilitate breeding program. Aim of the study was to identify a marker, closely linked to sex locus in Pistacia atlantica Desf mutica, P. khinjuk and P. vera var. Sarakhs. For this purpose, samples were collected from male and female individual trees from each species and their band patterns were analysed according to band specific presence or absence. Twenty Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a pair Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR) primer were tested to determine sex in wild Pistacia species. Among RAPD primers, only BC1200 amplified a specific sex band which was present in female plant. The results indicated that all individual samples amplified an approximately 300 base pairs fragment in female trees which was absent in male samples. Although sex determination mechanism in Pistacia is unknown, it might be controlled by single locus acting as a trigger. However, SCAR technique is a reliable technique to identify gender genotypes in seedling stage of Pistacia species, that would help to save time and expanses in breeding program.
Edi Santosa, Yoko Mine, Miki Nakata, Chunlan Lian and Nobuo Sugiyama
Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia. Facutly of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako 1737, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tok
Key words: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, clonal propagation, cluster analysis, genet, genetic diversity, Indonesia, SSR
Abstract: Ten microsatellite markers were used to clarify the genetic diversity of cultivated elephant foot yams collected in 13 villages in the Kuningan District, West Java, Indonesia. Each pair of primers generated four to five alleles, with an observed heterozygosity of 0.000-1.000 and an expected heterozygosity of 0.064-0.551. These markers identified seven likely genets (clonal individuals) in the Kuningan population. Of 61 individual plants surveyed in this study, 55 plants distributed throughout the Kuningan District belonged to the same genet, while the another genet represented by a plant (ramet). These ramets were restricted to the villages located on the main road between Kuningan City and Central Java. Cluster analysis shows that the seven genets can be classified into three groups, with two groups showing a restricted distribution in the villages located on the road leading to Central Java. Elephant foot yam plants with berries were rarely observed in the Kuningan District. It is likely that a single genet has become the dominated local cultivar, possibly because of the limited genetic diversity of elephant foot yam in the Kuningan District, its reproduction by clonal propagation and the selection of a specific cultivar by farmers.
A. Radhouani and A. Ferchichi
Dry Lands and Oasian Cropping Laboratory, Institute of Arid Regions, El Jorf 4119, Medenine, Tunisia.
Key words: Muskmelon, grafting, vegetative growth, indexes of growth, quantitative production
Abstract: Plants of muskmelon variety "Calypso" were used as scion and non grafted control while two hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita mushata), TZ148 and Ferro as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown under a monotunnel heated and irrigated by geothermic water in the South of Tunisia. Plants were grown in soilless culture on sand and compost. This trial has revealed that, on sand as well as on compost, grafted plants were more vigorous than self-rooted ones. This vigor was highlighted by values of length and volume of roots, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and fresh and dry matter of leaves. Indexes of growth represented by LAI, SLA, RGR and NAR were strongly improved by grafting particularly by TZ148. This improvement implied a hasty vegetative growth. Moreover, precocity of production was greater for grafted plants. In addition to their early production, grafted plants produced more fruits on sand and compost. The average weight of fruits was enhanced, too, by this agricultural practice. Thus, the major part of fruits produced by grafted plants had a weight superior to 600g.
XiaoLong Li,, JianWen Tian, Mark A. Ritenour, JiaZheng Li, ShuYa Song, HuiLing Ma
College of Life Science, Northwestern A & F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Germplasm resources institute of Ningxia Agricultural Sciences Academy, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia Autonomous region, China. Ningxia Science and Technology Agency, Y
Abstract: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with polyolefin bags made of modified polyvinyl chloride (mPVC), micro-perforated polyethylene (mpPE), modified polyethylene (mPE), plastic film mulch (control-1), and polyvinyl chloride with holes (control-2) were evaluated for their ability to preserve quality of Fuji apple during storage at 0 to 1oC. The results showed that atmosphere in mPVC bag was adjusted to 2.73%~2.38% CO2 and 15.70%~18.13% O2 while in mpPE, mPE and control-1 bag CO2 levels were elevated and O2 level declined to 0.10-0.72%, 20.53~20.9%, respectively. In mPE bag, fruits recorded significantly less weight loss than other packagings throughout the storage, while fruit in mPVC, fresh weight loss was same as in control-1. The overall fruit quality of flesh firmness (FFF), soluble solid content (SSC) and ascorbic acid remained at almost the same level in each packaging during the first 40 days of storage, and changed thereafter. Control-1 resulted in significantly lower FFF than other packagings till day 220 and SSC showed the same trend as in control-2. Respiration rate of fruit in mPVC, control-1 and control-2 peaked on day 220 and those in mpPE and mPE peaked on day 240. Ethylene production of fruit in each packaging increased since day 40 and peaked on day 80 for mPE and control-1, day 100 for mpPE and control-2, on day 120 for mPVC. A second peak for mPE appeared on day 120. Each packaging resulted a dramatic increase and drop of SOD activity in fruit in the first 40 days. After about 220 days of storage, superficial scald and core browning occurred on fruit in mpPE, mPE, control-1, control-2 by 2.4-6.0% and 1.2-1.6%, 6.3-7.9% and 15.8-17.3%, 0-1.6% and 4.4-4.6%, 15.4-16.1% and 3.2-4.5%, respectively while no such incidence was observed in mPVC. Decay and disorder developed faster when storage duration increased.
Damianos Neocleous, Charalambos Kaittanis, Nicos Seraphides and Polycarpos Polycarpou
Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia, Cyprus.
Abstract: Under the impact of new cultivation and socioeconomic trends, and the aspiration for agricultural sustainability, a research study was conducted under Cyprus conditions. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cvs. 'Paris island', 'Lollo rosa', and 'Oakleaf') and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Camarosa') plants were used to evaluate horizontal and vertical growing setups in a 'closed' soilless system. For lettuce, the vertical system provided more marketable lettuce per system's surface area compared to the horizontal setup. However, the horizontal system provided greater lettuce mass and higher percentage marketable yield than the vertical one. The nitrate content of all lettuce cultivars was not significantly different between the two systems and remained lower than the European standards all over the experiment. For strawberry, the vertical setup offered higher yield compared to the horizontal one. The quality characteristics were not different between the two systems. These results suggest that the studied setups and the 'closed' soilless system can be used as a tool for the improvement of Cyprus greenhouse production, water use efficiency and prevention of environmental damage from regular' disposal of hydroponics solution. The possibility of an improved greenhouse production system could be considered as technique of choice under semi-arid Cyprus and E. Mediterranean conditions using such materials.
H.A. Kassem and H.A. Marzouk
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Abstract: A field study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 seasons on twenty-six years old Zaghloul cultivar of date palm growing in clay silt soil. One level of nitrogen alone or plus P and K from mineral (ammonium nitrate alone or ammonium nitrate + calcium superphosphate + potassium sulphate, NPK) and organic sources [poultry /chicken manure (CM), cow dung (CD) and town refuse compost (TR)] were applied either alone or in combinations to study their influence on the yield and fruit physico-chemical quality. The results revealed that applying organic manure either alone or combined with mineral fertilizers increased palm yield and enhanced fruit colour as compared with mineral fertilization alone. CM and CD resulted in the best fruit weight, fruit flesh weight and length. Fruit TSS, anthocyanin and sugars content increased while, tannins content was decreased by CM and CD as compared with combining organic manure with NPK or mineral alone. However, fruit acidity was not affected by any of the treatments when compared among each others. In general, micronutrients contents were significantly higher in fruits by applying organic manure alone than organic manure combined with NPK or mineral fertilization alone. Organic manure fertilization alone (especially CM and CD) resulted in decreasing lead, cadmium, nitrate and nitrite content than mineral fertilization.
R.K. Singh and P. Gogoi
Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar - 791112. India.
Abstract: A green house study was carried out to investigate the effect of inoculation with four native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme on growth performance of a medicinally important plant "Long pepper" (Piper longum L.). Inoculation with all AMF species enhanced plant growth, however, significant variation in effectiveness of the four AMF species was observed in relation to both root and shoot growth. A significantly higher total biomass (0.84g/plant) was observed in G. fasciculatum and G. clarum inoculated plants. The performance of G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme were statistically on par to each other in increasing the chlorophyll content over the control plants. The root colonizing capacity of G. fasciculatum was found to be significantly higher, the next being G. versiforme.
Department of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Laurus nobilis L., was examined by GC and GC/MS. The main components of the oil were identified. 1,8-cineole was the major component in the oil together with a - terpinyl acetate, terpinene - 4 - ol, a - pinene, P - pinene, p - cymene, linalool and terpinene - 4 - yl - acetate. The essential oil was tested against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens larvae. The results obtained show that the essential oil could be considered as natural larvicidal agents.
The National centre for Agricultural Research and Extension, PO Box-93. Postal code: 11623, Jordan..
Abstract: This study was conducted at Jordan Valley to evaluate the use of locally available tuff and sand substrates in comparison with soil for growing sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Reehan) using an open soilless culture. Treatments were randomly distributed according to RCBD with three replications. Sweet pepper plants, grown in soil or tuff gave higher total yield (6.0, 5.5 and 8.7, 6.5 ton/1000m2, respectively) and yield/plant (2.0, 1.58 and 1.3, 1.38 kg/plant, respectively) in both the years, while those grown in sand produced the least. Fruit weight of plants grown in soil was the highest in the first season (200.6 g) followed by tuff and lastly the sand (177.0 and 169.4 g, respectively), however, it was not affected by the substrates in the second season. Substrates had little effect on fruit length in both seasons and fruit diameter in the first season, but, in the second season those grown in soil gave the highest diameter (74.4 mm) followed by those in tuff and sand (70.6 and 70.3 mm, respectively). This study indicated that open soilless system using tuff as a substrate may be suitable for sweet pepper production without dramatic changes in yield or fruit quality and it saved about 65-70% of water applied by conventional farmers for sweet pepper production under plastic house.
H.E. Palmucci, Z. Premuzic, L. Mascarini, C. Campetella and V. L?pez
Cdtedra Fitopatologia. Cdtedra Quimica Analitica. Cdtedra Floricultura. Intensificando. Cdtedra Estadistica. Fac-ultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (FAUBA) Av. San Martin 4453. Capital Federal (1416) TE: 4524-8063. PROYECTO UBACyT G005, Argen
Abstract: Chlorination constitutes a practical and economical chemical control method for the disinfection of recycled nutrient solutions in soil?less growing systems. Although the chlorination can prevent the development of pathogenic organisms, the use of inadequate doses of chlorine could produce damages to the culture and environment. It is necessary to select doses for each plant species that do not cause damages nor produce undesirable effects on the productivity and quality. Zinnia sp. in South America has large potential for cultivation as an ornamental potted or vase flower. Tests for disinfection of the recycled nutrient solution were performed with different chlorine quantities (control, 11, 22, 44 and 88 mg L-1) to evaluate the potential phytotoxicity and effects on the flower production (weight and number) of Zinnia elegans var. Enana. The production and phytotoxicity were analyzed in relations with the contents of macronutrients (N, P, Ca, and K), sodium and chlorides levels in leaves and related chemical changes (pH, EC and chlorides) in the nutrient solution. The results showed improvement of the development of foliage, roots and the production of flowers with the doses of 11 and 22 ppm, associated to a minor toxicity. The larger doses did not surpass the toxicity levels, although affected the productivity and quality of plants. These results enabled us to select doses under the value of 22 ppm for futures effectiveness test to control pathogens.
N. Bumgarner and S. Verlinden
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV26506-6057, USA.
Abstract: Four microclimate modification methods including spun-bonded and slitted low tunnels both with and without the addition of water-filled plastic tubes were tested for their effect on early and total yields of warm and cool season vegetable crops in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Peppers, tomatoes, radishes, and lettuce were organically grown in 2006 and 2007. Early season pepper yields were higher when water tubes were included with low tunnels while early tomato yields did not differ. Total yields for warm season crops in some microclimate modification treatments were higher than the control, and harvests started up to four weeks earlier in the spring. Cool season crop yields in the four treatments showed no increase over the control despite one to three weeks earlier harvests for radish and lettuce. These results show potential for earlier safe planting dates and increased yield, especially in warm season vegetable crops using low tunnels and water tubes. Additionally, economic analysis demonstrated a potential for increased profits over control plots using these microclimate modification techniques.
T Ban, A. Nakatsuka, K. Akaura, S. Matsumoto, M. Ishimaru and H. Itamura
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; BFaculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504, Japan; Department of
Abstract: The grape berry morphologically consists of epidermis, an outer wall, an inner wall and placenta. The inner contents such as soluble solids, organic acids and moisture distribution of grape berries are dramatically changed during the veraison between the growth and ripening period. However, we know little about the changes in the inner contents of the outer wall, inner wall and placenta. Our purpose of the study is to clarify the tissue specificity of the total soluble solids content, sugar composition, flesh firmness and moisture distribution of 'Kyoho' grape berry during growth and ripening period. The moisture distribution of the grape berries was analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The total soluble solids contents of the outer wall were higher than those of the inner wall during the investigation period. In this study, fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in the berries. The concentrations of these sugars in the outer wall were higher than those in the inner wall; however, the components of these sugars were not different between the outer wall and inner wall. Even within the same berry, the flesh firmness and the moisture distribution were different from one part of the tissue to another. These results indicate that the growth rate of grape berry varies considerably among the different parts of the berry.
Mohd Zahid, C.S. Cheow, A.R. Norizzah, Z.M.S. Halimahton and M.S. Adi
Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: Application of edible coating represents a method that can extend the shelf life of picked guava by minimizing the loss of weight mainly due to natural migration process of moisture and gases. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to search for best composition of edible coating which comprised of three variables namely palm stearin, palm olein and beeswax. Based on central composite rotatable designs of RSM and weight loss as response, 15 coating compositions were established involving 8 factorial points, 6 axial points and 1 centre point. From the RSM-generated model, optimum coating composition for minimizing guava weight loss was identified as palm stearin 4.5% (w/v), palm olein 1% (v/v) and beeswax 1% (w/v). Under this optimum composition, the predicted weight loss of coated guava was 7.18%, whereas, the experimental weight loss of coated guava was 7.51% after tenth days of storage period. The RSM-predicted and experimental weight loss were not significantly different from each other. The weight loss of uncoated guava was 3 times higher (25%) after 8 days of storage as compared to coated guava. Thus, the use of optimum composition of edible coating provides acceptable alternative for post harvest control of weight loss of guava during storage.
JalalUdDin Baloch, M. Qasim Khan, M. Munir and M. Zubair
Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK; University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
Key words: Ornamental annuals, short day plants, flowering, photoperiod, facultative short day plants
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study flowering response of six facultative short day plants (zinnia cv. Lilliput, sunflower cv. Elf, French marigold cv. Orange Gate, African marigold cv. Crush, cockscomb cv. Bombay and cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) under four distinct controlled photoperiods (8, 11, 14 and 17 h d-1). A curvilinear facultative response was observed in almost all cultivars studied. zinnia, sunflower, French marigold, African marigold, cockscomb and cosmos took minimum time to flower when grown under 8 h d-1 photoperiods however it was significantly (P<0.05) increased when photoperiod was increased to 17 h d-1. These findings revealed plant scheduling prospect that is, the flowering time of facultative SDPs grown under long day photoperiod can be extended in order to continue supply of these plants in the market
Song, Paul V. Nelson, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., and D. Keith Cassel
Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, 11 Dongwhari Bongdam Hwasunsi Kyonggido, R.O. Korea 445-890, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609, Department of Biology, Elon University, Elon, N
Abstract: Ground, composted rice hulls were combined as a root substrate component with peat moss and coir at five rice hulls percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100) in a factorial design. Seventy-five percent of the rice hull particles were 0.51 to 1.40 mm and 90% of the particles were 0.51 to 2.00 mm. In physical property evaluations, increasing the percentage of rice hulls in both the peat moss and coir series of substrates increased the dry bulk density and airspace at container capacity; however, as air space increased, container capacity and available water decreased. In the first two of three plant growth experiments, Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. 'Super Elfin White' was grown in 288 cell plug trays. In the third experiment, Verbena Xhybrida Voss. 'Romance Deep Rose' was grown in 48 cell bedding plant flats. Due to problems with high pH in the coir, only the peat moss growth results were reported. Overall, growth was best in 25% rice hulls plus 75% peat moss. Rice hulls increased substrate Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both the peat moss and coir. Adding rice hulls to the substrate increased K+ in peat and decreased K+ in coir. There was no effect of rice hulls on substrate NO3- -N, NH4+-N, and PO4-P in the substrate solution. Ground, composted rice hulls are a potential alternative component of soilless substrate for plugs and bedding plants.
Marchionni Bast?, D.R. Liberatti, S.L. Mahuad, G.R. Rodriguez, G.R. Pratta, R. Zorzoli and L.A. Picardi
CONICET, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. FONCyT, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. CIUNR, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agr
Abstract: Five recombinant inbred lines, generated from a single interspecific cross S. lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium, were crossed in a complete diallel combination without reciprocal. Fruit quality traits were analyzed according to Griffing (1956), method 2, model 1 (fixed effects). Significant general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) effects were found for all traits. Weight, reflectance percentage, chroma index, firmness, soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity presented SCA values greater than GCA values, indicating nonadditive effects. Both additive and nonadditive effects were significant in determining diameter and shape. Positive unidirectional dominance was found for shape, shelf life and chroma index, while negative unidirectional dominance was involved in the expression of weight, diameter, height, reflectance percentage and firmness. Bidirectional dominance was found for soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity. In spite of being a genetic pool generated from a single interspecific cross, high levels of genotypic and phenotypic variability was found among the fifteen genotypes for important agronomic traits. Both additive and nonadditive effects were important in the genetic determination of these traits.
Mohamed Thabet and Khemaies Zayani
Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisie. Institut Superieur des Sciences et Technologie de I'Environnement BP 1003, Hammam-Lif2050, Tunisie.
Abstract: Field experiments were performed to study the impact of two different irrigation systems (surface drip and surface) on water use efficiency and yield components of a pepper crop (Capsicum annum. L). Irrigation scheduling was carried out based on estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using crop coefficients for pepper and reference evapotranspiration ETo calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation (Allen et al., 1998). The crop received total water needs computed according to Veirmeiren and Jobling (1983) procedure for surface drip irrigation. Border irrigation was scheduled by Cropwat model (Smith, 1992). Experimental plots were irrigated simultaneously during the appropriate duration for each one and received the same nutrients (N, P, and K) ratio. Comparison was made on fruit number per plant, fruit weight, fruit weight by harvest and yield per unit surface. The results showed that compared with surface irrigation, drip irrigation presented a significant difference in total fruit yield and water use during cropping season (May to September). With drip irrigation, average yield was 19.73 kg m2 which was 68% greater than that irrigated with surface irrigation (11.90 kg m2). Applied water volume by unit production (m3/kg) was 0.38 for drip and 1.05 for border, respectively. Drip irrigation increased fresh pepper fruit yield with a reduction of 60% in water use compared to traditional surface irrigation.
O. Borsani, G. GonzalezNeves, M. Ferrer and J. Monza
Laboratorios de Bioquimica and Viticultura - Enologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Avda. Garzon 780 CP 12900. Montevideo, Uruguay, Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura, Dr. Pouey 463. Las Piedras, Uruguay.
Key words: Anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, berries, hydric deficit,Vitis vinifera L.
Abstract: Anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression in berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat trained in Lyre system was investigated. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway as chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4- reductase (DFR), and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O- glucosyl transferase (UFGT)was examined. On the other hand, the influence of plant architecture, Lyre and vertical shoot positioned (VSP) trellis systems, on anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression was also analyzed. Final contents of total anthocyanins were not affected by trellis systems but varied in two years with different water deficit imposition period. However, the individual profile of the genes and anthocyanidins modified according to the moment of water deficit imposition (veraison or harvest) and by the trellis systems (Lyre or VSP). Analysis of gene expression in Lyre along the berry development period showed that low leaf water potentials after veraison cause an earlier and greater induction compared with expression in a year with low leaf water potential at harvest. At harvest, the hydric deficit induced an increase in the expression of CHS, F3H and DFR genes and a higher total anthocyanins content. The study revealed that plant architecture affect the expression of anthocyanins related gene in berries possibly by modifying the canopy microclimate.
Yaser Hassan Dewir, Nisha Singh, Siveshni Govender and Pragashnee Pillay
School of Biological & Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt.
Key words: Bioreactor, in vitro flowering, Gentian, mass propagation, microponics
Abstract: Hormonal control of flower induction in vitro was investigated in Gentian. The effect of PBZ concentrations on flowering was studied in plantlets cultured in MS medium containing 30 g L-1sucrose. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) concentration at 1.0 mg L-1 induced the highest flowering in terms of flowering percentage (91.5%), number of flowers, days to first flowering, flower length and flower diameter. PBZ did not trigger flowering but it rather stimulated flowering and its role seemed to be additive but not essential for flowering. Comparison between solid and bioreactor cultures (continuous immersion with a net) revealed that shoot multiplication and growth were more efficient using bioreactor culture. The highest shoot number per explant (29.9) was obtained in bioreactor culture. Regenerated shoots were cultured microponically for 6 weeks. Hundred percent of plants rooted and were acclimatized successfully in growing media containing perlite: vermiculite (1:1).
N. Njoroge, B. Gemmill, R. Bussmann, L.E. Newton and V.W. Ngumi
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department, P.O. Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Economic Botany, Missouri Botanical Gar
Abstract: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. (Watermelon) is an important crop plant in Kenya. Being monoecious, watermelon is entirely dependent upon pollination services usually by insects for production. Although the centre of origin for this plant is thought to be tropical Africa, essentially not much has been studied of its pollination requirements in this region. The current study investigated the identity of the wild pollinators of watermelon, their behaviour and relative pollination efficiencies at Yatta, a farm near Thika (Eastern Province). The main pollinator for this crop was found to be the honey bee, Apis mellifera but three wild species of Lasioglossum were found as important pollinators. These wild bees have a significantly higher (P< 0.0001) pollen deposition on stigmas of watermelon than honeybees. One of the Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia)sp. 4 deposited on average three times as much pollen as the honeybee. At about the time of stigmatic receptivity, the number of visits by this species to female flowers increases until it equals visits to male flowers irrespective of number of flowers per plot. This behavioural pattern coupled with the high pollen deposition potential makes Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia)sp. 4 a superior candidate as an alternatively managed pollinator for watermelon. Knowing that visitation occurs mostly in the morning, and that flowers last only for one day, spraying can be done in the later hours of the day when the pollinators have virtually stopped foraging on the flowers. In view of the reported pollinator decline globally, the wild pollinator species reported in this study warrant further investigation on their nesting biology and potential for domestication.
Bhusan Gurung and K.K. Singh
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Sikkim Unit, Pangthang, Post Box 24, Gangtok, East Sikkim-737101, India.
Abstract: The first successful micropropagation protocol was developed for an important Sikkim Himalayan Rhododendron, R. dalhousiae Hook. f. also known as Lahare Chimal in Sikkim. In vitro raised shoot tip explants from R. dalhousiae were used to produce multiple shoots on a medium containing various concentrations of growth regulators. Among the combinations used, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 5 mg L-1 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP) along with additives such as, 100 mg L-1 polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), 100 mg L-1 ascorbic acid, 10 mg L-1 citric acid was found to be best for induction of multiple shoots within 12 weeks of culture. The combination of 5 mg L-1 2iP +1 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) resulted in further multiple shoot production than using them alone. Rooting of shoots in vitro was achieved on MS medium containing 0.2 mg L-1 indolebutyric acid (IBA). Rooted plantlets were transferred to small polythene bags containing autoclaved fresh peat moss and soil (1:3) and maintained with a high humidity for acclimation. These in vitro-raised plants grew normally in greenhouse and natural habitat (arboretum of the Institute) without showing any morphological variation. The protocol developed from the present study could be used for large scale multiplication of R. dalhousiae in a limited time.
M. Bejoy, M. Dan, N.P. Anish, Githa Ann George and B.J. Radhika
Plant Genetic Resource Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Trivandrum 695 562, Kerala, India.
Abstract: An efficient and repeatable micropropagation protocol has been established for Amomum hypoleucum, a lesser known threatened medicinal plant of the family Zingiberaceae. Eighty percent of the rhizome nodes from greenhouse grown plants, cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 IAA, showed axillary bud break in 8-10 days. Multiple shoots proliferated from such shoot explants when transplanted to medium with 3 mg L-1 BA and 1 mg L-1 TDZ. An average of 9.2 shoots could be recovered in two months and about 65-70% of the shoots showed simultaneous rooting. Isolated shoots were also rooted in medium fortified with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. Plantlets, transferred to the field after acclimatization in greenhouse conditions, showed 85% survival.
Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, P. O.Box 22016, 1516Nicosia, Cyprus.
Abstract: Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Paris Island') were grown in an unheated plastic greenhouse to determine the effects of solution nitrogen concentration and growth regulators (gibberellin and kinetin) on growth (fresh and dry head weight) and tissue nitrate content (TNC). The plants were grown in plastic containers with perlite and supplied with a basic nutrient solution supplemented with nitrogen (N) corresponding to 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm NO3-N. Growth regulators; gibberellin (GA3) and kinetin were applied at different doses independently and in combination. Fresh, dry weight and TNC were responsive to N application level. However, fresh and dry weights were similar at 150 and 200 ppm and TNC at 100 and 150 ppm nitrogen supply. Gibberellin (GA3) and gibberellin and kinetin in combination (GA3+kinetin) enhanced fresh and dry weight and TNC compared to the control. There were few differences in response to application rates. Therefore, where lettuce plants are grown in similar conditions and low NO3 accumulation is desirable, together with high yield and good size, the best N application level is 150 ppm NO3-N and growth regulators application may enhance yield. However their use in reducing the nitrate content is not recommended.
S. Protain, M. Mohammed and L.A. Wilson
The University of the West Indies, Department of Food Production, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies.
Abstract: The process of ripening was evaluated in three papaya cultivars, Solo Sunrise (SS), Tainung #2 (T2) and Red Lady (RL) with different mean fruit weights of 387, 1364 and 2266 g and fruit cavity void volumes of 56, 334 and 502 mL and fruit weight/cavity void volume ratios of 6.9, 3.8 and 4.3 g mL-1, respectively. The evaluation was done by comparing physiological determinants of the ripening process; ethylene (C2H4) generation and respiratory CO2 production, measured at two temperature ranges, 20-22oC and 28-30oC, by sampling cavity void volumes, with physico-chemical quality characteristics of ripening: skin colour, flesh firmness and pH. Fruit ripening of the three cultivars was delayed at the lower temperature range as measured both by physiological determinants including pre-and peak climacteric rates and physico-chemical quality characteristics. However, cv RL showed slower ripening than cvs SS and T2 at both temperature ranges, probably partly related to its low fruit weight/cavity void volume of 4.3 g mL-1. Moreover, there were negative temporal displacements for skin degreening compared with those for flesh softening, respiration and ethylene generation in fruit of the three cultivars. Fruits of cvs SS and T2 were fully ripened in 8 days after harvest (DAH) and RL fruits in 10 DAH at the lower temperature range. Values for C2H4 generation and CO2 production measured in the fruit cavity are judged to be sensitive indicators of the progress in the process of ripening.
S. Akbari Chermahini, N. Moallemi, A. Shafei Zargar
Department of Horticulture, Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran, Safiabad- Dezful Agricultural Research Center, Dezful, Iran.
Key words: Nitrogen, flowering, fruit set, 'Valencia' Orange
Abstract: Yield of fruit tree is determined primarily by flowering intensity and subsequent fruit set. Flower number and fruit set are also influenced by endogenous nitrogen level. This research was concerned with the effect of winter foliar application of urea on flowering and fruit-set of 30-year-old 'Valencia' orange on sour orange rootstock at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful. Treatments included urea foliar application at 3 levels (0, 0.5, 1%) and 2 times of application (6 and 9 weeks before full bloom). The experimental design was a factorial randomize complete block with 4 replications. Nitrogen percentage in leaf, flower number, ovary diameter and fruit set were studied. Results showed that winter application of urea increased the level of N for 2 weeks. Different levels of urea increased the number of flowers, ovary diameter and fruit set. The higher concentration of urea (1%) had more effect. Considering the time of application, urea spray 9 weeks before full bloom had the highest effect on flowering but urea spray 6 weeks before full bloom resulted in higher ovary diameter and fruit set.
S. Ramakrishnan, R. Umamaheswari, T Senthilkumar and M. Samuthiravalli
Department of Nematology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641
Abstract: Experiments were conducted for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita using non-chemicals under controlled and field conditions in medicinal crops viz., ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)and senna (Cassia angustifolia). All the treatments comprising of bioagents, organic amendments and humic acid were effective to suppress M. incognita population and to increase the plant biomass and yield of economic parts of these crops. Among the treatments, the use of plant growth promoting rhizobcaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens available commercially in talc formulation (2.6 X 106 cfu g-1) at 2.5 kg ha1 as soil application recorded the lowest nematode population accompanied with highest economic yield.
P. Aggarwal, A.K. Bakshi and J.S. Kanwar
Department of Food Science and Technology & Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004.
Abstract: Two cling stone peach cultivars "Shan-i-Punjab" and "Tropic Beauty" and one free stone cultivar "Florda Grande" were processed for canning (whole and halves) and beverages (squash and nectar). Fruits of Shan-i-Punjab were found to have the best characteristics for canning (as whole) and for making pulp based beverages (nectar and squash) with maximum ascorbic acid content (17 mg/100 g) and pulp yield (47.62%). Organoleptically Shan-i-Punjab fruits were found to have the highest acceptability scores i.e. 8.50 for canned peaches, 8.58 for squash and 8.38 for nectar among all the cultivars studied on a 9-point Hedonic scale judged by eight semi-trained panelists and general consumers. Florda Grande also received the higher acceptability scores (8.50) for its canned peach halves because of its tough texture. The fruits of Florda Grande were not much suitable for pulp based beverages, whereas those of Tropic Beauty were found acceptable for canning as well as for making beverages at zero time and also after six months storage.
Shamsa Fazel, Monsef Hamidreza, Ghamooshi Rouhollah and Mohammadreza Verdianrizi
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Key words: BCG, total alkaloids, medicinal plants, determination
Abstract: A simple spectrophotometric method based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG) was developed for determination of total alkaloids in medicinal plants. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 4.7. The absorbance of the complex obeys Bear 's law over the concentration range of 4-13 ug atropine per mL of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.
R.K. Sharma and K. Prasad
S.C.I. India Ltd., Bhagalpur - 812001, Bihar. Department of Food Engineering and Technology, SLIET, Longowal - 148 106, Punjab.
Key words: Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus, correlation, variance, principal component.
Abstract: Twenty selected genetically diverse okra strains were evaluated using Principal Component and cluster analysis for the extent of variability and relationship between various economically important traits for the purpose of genetic improvement. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD). Positive significant correlation for days to 50% flowering (DF) with days to first harvest (DFH), number of pod per plant (NP) with pod yield per plant (PY) and pod yield per plot (PYP) (P<0.001) and PY with PYP (P<0.001) and negative correlation was observed for pod weight (PW) with NP (P<0.01). The analysis of extracted components, component pattern and Eigen values revealed that the first two principal components alone accounted for 53.25% of variance. First component was found heavily loaded with days to 50% flowering (DF), days to first harvest (DFH), pod length (PL), pod diameter (PD) and pod weight (PW), which comprised of fourteen genotypes in three clusters. The matrix obtained from principal component analysis revealed that the genotype Pb- 57 and HRB-9-2 found their positions in same cluster in principal space. Dominating similar prominent phenotypic characters formed separate place in principal space as coherent cluster. Cluster based inter breeding of genotypes would exhibit high hetrosis and is also likely to produce new recombinants with desired characters in okra.
M.A. Hegazi and G.A.N. ElKot
Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department ofAgriculture Botany (Phytopathology), Faculty ofAgriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr el-Sheikh, Egypt.
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during two successive seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El- Sheikh University to evaluate some essential oils as biocontrol agents for powdery mildew on Zinnia elegans, L. Marjoram, clove, cinnamon, garlic, ginger and fennel oil were used as a foliar spray at 2 levels (250 and 500 ppm) beside Kema zein 75% and distilled water as a control. The plants were sprayed four times beginning from June 15th with one week interval by a hand atomizer as soon as the first sign of powdery mildew detected on plants. Disease incidence and severity as well as vegetative parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of shoots, root length and fresh and dry weights of roots were determined in the two seasons. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities were determined after 24 hour from the last spray in leaves samples. The highest significant decrease in disease incidence and severity and the best results for most of the studied growth and flowering parameters and total green colour were recorded when plants were sprayed with ginger, cinnamon and clove oils, respectively each at 500 ppm compared to the other treatments in both seasons. In addition, the activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes increased as a result of oil spray on plants. In conclusion, these findings provide a rational basis for possible utilization of these essential oils as a safe and alternative method to fungicides for controlling powdery mildew in zinnia plants.
Sait Engindeniz, Murat Yercan and Hakan Adanacioglu
Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Bornova-Izmir/Turkey.
Key words: Capitalization rate, orchards, income capitalization approach, olive, valuation.
Abstract: Valuation of orchards is an important issue in condemnation, taxation, loan, insurance, inheritance, and purchase-sale cases. The approach to be used for orchards may vary according to the purpose of appraisal, age of the establishment, obtainable data, and according to the current regulations. In this study, land and tree values of olive orchards in a selected region from Turkey were determined by the periodic income capitalization approach. For this aim, four villages were selected and data was collected from 55 farmers selected randomly. While determining the value of the olive orchards with trees, past values approach was used. The capitalization rate for the income capitalization approach was determined as 5.32%. The value of bare land of olive orchards over periodic net income was calculated to be $ 19,684.87/ha. Tree values per hectare varied between $ 9,189.86 and $ 16,768.13 according to tree ages.