Abstract: Field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2002 at 2 locations (Vengurle and Mulde) in Konkan, Maharashtra, India to evaluate the performance of the bold aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cultivars NA-7, Krishna, Chakaiya and Kanchan. Based on pooled data for 3 years, Kanchan recorded the highest yields of 40.82 and 12.77 kg/tree at Vengurle and Mulde, respectively. Thus, Kanchan is highly recommended for cultivation in the Konkan region. However, for effective cross pollination and higher yield, mixed planting of Kanchan with Krishna and NA-7 could be the best strategy for aonla cultivation in the region. Monsoon season harvest proved to be superior under Konkan conditions.
R. Jagadeeswaran, V. Murugappan and M. Govindaswamy
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003.
Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy of slow release NPK fertilizers in turmeric, two field experiments were conducted on a sandy clay loam soil. These slow release NPK fertilizers are new products in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated formulations, which contains all the three major nutrients in them. Five slow release NPK fertilizer sources were tested in comparison with straight fertilizers at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125 % of recommended dose in a randomized block design. The results clearly indicated that the wet rhizome yield significantly increased with increasing levels of NPK and when applied in the form of tablets. The N, P and K uptake both in shoot as well as rhizome of turmeric increased significantly up to 125 % of NPK level applied. The uptake was significantly higher in plots which received tablet form of slow release fertilizers than other fertilizer sources.
Verma, S K; Singh, R K; Arya, R R
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Bhowali, Nainital, Uttaranchal - 263 132, India.
Abstract: Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance as percentage of mean were estimated in 17 strawberry accessions, grown in 1997 in Bhowali, Uttaranchal, India, for 16 characters. Fruit length showed high coefficient of variation (104.56%). Percentage of plant flowering showed the maximum phenotypic and genetic coefficient of variations, followed by fruit volume, flower number, number of flower trusses per plant and flower disk diameter. Fruit weight, plant height, petiole length, percentage of plant flowering and fruit volume showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean, which indicated that selection can be made for improvement. The genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the phenotypic correlation coefficients. This indicated little role of environment in the expression of genetic relationship. Fruit number per plant was positively and significantly correlated with fruit volume, fruit weight, flower disk diameter,
Pal, A K; Singh, B; Maurya, A N
Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005 (U.P.), India.
Abstract: A study was conducted during 1999-2000 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the inbreeding depression between Vigna unguiculata and V. sesquipedalis [V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis]. The experiment was carried out in a line x tester design and data on 30 hybrids generated from 13 parents were analysed for inbreeding depression in the F2 generation. Observations were recorded for 13 characters, i.e. days to 50% flowering, days to 1st green pod picking, plant height, peduncle length, number of primary branches per plant, pod length, pod diameter, number of peduncles per plant, number of pods per peduncle, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, green pod yield per plant and 100-seed weight. Significant and varying degrees of inbreeding depression was observed for all the parameters, indicating the presence of high degree of diversity among the parents and presence of non-additive gene action. Cross combination KLS-10 x Cowpea-263 yielded more in the F2 generation for green pod yield
Cyd Celeste Cagas, Miki Nakata, Mae Rose Sumugat and Nobuo Sugiyama
Graduated School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plug tray, root restriction, temperature
Abstract: Seedlings of three tomato cultivars, 'Reika', 'Marryroad' and 'First Power' were grown in either pots or plug trays in order to clarify the interaction effect of cultivar and root container size on the number of days to flowering and the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence under different temperature regimens. The number of days to flowering was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, regardless of temperature regimen. Flowering was delayed at 23/18?C compared with 30/25?C for seedlings raised in either pots or plug trays. The number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, except for 'Marryroad' at 23/18?C. Regardless of root container size, the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in 'First Power' than in 'Reika' and 'Marryroad' at 30/25?C. These results suggest the importance of cultivar choice for the production of tomato seedlings with a small number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence using plug trays in cool conditions.
Chezhiyan, N; Shanmugasundaram, K A
Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Abstract: BSR-1 is a new high-yielding (155 kg/tree, 42 952 kg/ha), self-fruitful, and late-maturing cultivar of aonla (Emblica officinalis [P. emblica]) selected from a large number of germplasm from Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu, India. Its fruits are flattened at the base and round at the apex, with an average weight of 27.30 g/fruit. The fruits contain high total soluble solids (18.1 degrees brix) and vitamin C (620 mg/100 g of flesh), low phenol (29.75 mg/g of flesh), and high crude fibre content (4.31%).
Ryo Norikoshi, Hideo Imanishi and Kazuo Ichimura
National Institute of Floricultural Science, Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8519, Japan; Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.
Abstract: To establish a simple and rapid extraction method for soluble carbohydrate for determination of osmolar concentration in petals by HPLC analysis, a method using a centrifugal filter device with microwave heating was developed. Rose 'Sonia' petals were placed in a centrifugal filter device and heated in a microwave oven to boiling. The centrifugal filter device was centrifuged with the petals at 12,000 g for 10 min. The resulting leached solution was subjected to HPLC analysis. No significant difference in soluble carbohydrate composition was observed between the solution obtained from this method and that obtained from a conventional extraction method in which tissues are homogenized using hot ethanol solution. Changes in soluble carbohydrate concentration with flower opening in 'Rote Rose' roses were investigated using the new method. The osmolar concentrations of glucose and fructose in the petals increased during flower opening. This increase was roughly comparable to the increase in osmotic pressure in the petals. The results suggest that the method using the centrifugal filter device with microwave heating is a simple and rapid way to determine osmolar concentration of soluble carbohydrates of rose petals.
Narendra Kumar; Dimri, D C; Nigam, J K
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agri & Tech., Hill Campus, Ranichauri - 249 199, (Uttaranchal), India.
Abstract: Six important peach cultivars namely, Tessia Samisto, Early White Giant, Stark Early Giant, Hales Early, Crawford Early and July Elberta, were evaluated for their physico-chemical traits under humid temperate mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 2000/01. The maximum fruit size (6.72x6.15 cm), weight (89.21 g) and volume (91.51 ml) were recorded in Crawford Early, followed by July Elberta (5.68x5.47 cm, 81.69 g and 83.14 ml, respectively). The maximum TSS (12.79 degrees Brix) and total sugars (11.56%) were also registered in July Elberta, whereas maximum acidity (0.98%) and ascorbic acid (6.42 mg/100 g) were recorded in the cultivars Hales Early and July Elberta, respectively. On the basis of these parameters, July Elberta and Crawford Early have been found superior under mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal.
Tripathi, A N; Tripathi, S N; Shukla, R K; Pandey, G
Department of Horticulture, Janta College, Bakewar (Etawah), U.P. 206 125, India.
Abstract: A field trial was conducted during the winter season of 1998/99 in Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India to determine the optimum concentration of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA) and chlormequat (CCC) for application on French marigold. Spraying of NAA (50, 100 and 200 ppm), GA (100, 200 and 400 ppm) and CCC (200, 400 and 600 ppm) was done in February. Data were recorded for plant height, diameter of main stem, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, days to first flowering, diameter of flowers, fresh weight of flowers, number of flowers per plant, and flower yield per plant. CCC and GA application gave quite beneficial effects on these parameters. GA at 400 ppm and CCC at 600 ppm recorded the highest flower yield per plant (127.71 g) and number of flowers per plant (78.83), respectively. These chemicals had no adverse effect on the growth and flowering of French marigold.
Kenji Beppu, Makito Iino and Ikuo Kataoka
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.
Key words: Fruit set rate, ovule development, Prunus avium, soil cooling
Abstract: The effects of root zone cooling on flower development and fruit set of 'Satohnishiki' sweet cherry were studied. Soil temperature in pots of the tree was maintained at approximately 11?C from bud burst until petal fall, then at about 15?C until harvest by circulating cooled water through a tube coiling the pots. Root cooling did not appreciably affect flower size, pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in pistils. However, the treatment prolonged ovule longevity and markedly increased the fruit set rate. These results suggest the possibility of applying root cooling to improve the fruit set of sweet cherries grown in warm regions.
Engindeniz, S; Cukur, F; Yucel, D
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: costs, crop production, crop yield, fruit growing, peaches, production economics, profitability, returns
Abstract: Some technical and economic characteristics of peach growing in Kemalpasa, Izmir, Turkey, were examined. Data were obtained from a sample of 63 peach growers. Average yield per hectare and per tree was determined to be 16 848 kg and 37.7 kg, respectively. The average orchard size was 1.09 ha. Growers preferred square planting with 4.5 m x 4.5 m spacing rather than triangle planting. Redhaven, Cresthaven, Triogem and Dixired were the major cultivars grown. Net return per hectare and per tree was determined to be $839 and $1.88, respectively.
M. Melkamu, Tilahun Seyoum and Kebede Woldetsadik
Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Plant Science, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, P.O. Box 131, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study effects of preharvest treatment of ComCat? spray, organic manure, NP fertilization and the combinations of ComCat? with the two forms of fertilizers on yield and chemical quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Total and marketable yields were significantly influenced by the preharvest treatements. The result showed that the use of ComCat? and its combination with organic manure gave the highest total yield of 58.5 and 55.8 t ha-1, respectively. At harvest, 94 and 93% of tomatoes subjected to preharvest ComCat? and ComCat? plus organic manure treatment were marketable, respectively. The chemical quality parameters tested such as total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar were significantly (P<0.01) affected by the preharvest treatments. The study clearly demonstrated the importance of integerated agro-technology in order to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of tomatoes.
Phebe Ding and Ng Swee Bee
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti PutraMalaysia, 43400 UPMSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: Papaya is a climacteric fruit, naturally fragile and cannot resist low temperature. Thus, prolonging the postharvest life of papaya fruit for long distance transportation is highly desirable to increase its commercialisation. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been widely used to delay ripening and senescence of horticultural produces. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of 'Eksotika' papaya treated with 1-MCP and optimum concentration of 1-MCP in prolonging postharvest life of papaya. Papayas were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 uL L" of 1-MCP for 7 days at 21?C/90% relative humidity (RH). Then, the fruits were allowed to ripen at 26?C/70% RH. 1-MCP did not affect L*, C*, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, pH, vitamin C and weight loss of papaya. The ho and firmness of papaya treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP showed significant high values as compared to other concentrations. Similarly, visual quality evaluation also showed that fruits treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP retained green colour for 9 days and by day 13, no disease infection and shriveling was found in these fruits as compared to other concentrations. There is potential to prolong postharvest life of Eksotika papaya using 1-MCP.
Gh. Peyvast, P. Ramezani Kharazi, S. Tahernia, Z. Nosratierad and J.A. Olfati
Guilan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticultural Department, Rasht, Iran.
Key words: Broccoli, municipal solid waste compost, nitrate, yield, quality.
Abstract: A study of the nitrate uptake of Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. italica), grown with different amount of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) was conducted in 2006 on open field at the University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. The experiment was arranged in complete randomized block design with four treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg. ha-1 MSWC) and four replications. The results revealed that under prevailing local conditions, total yield of the broccoli was higher when fertilized with MSWC and low when compost was not applied to the planted area. The plants with the highest compost application (100 Mg ha-1) gave significantly highest yield at 37.03 Mg ha-1 which was statistically different from other treatments. The significant differences were found also on marketable yield with an exception at lowest compost treatment. The lowest amount of nitrate (0.197 % in DM) in broccoli edible part was with application of 50 Mg. ha-1 compost.
F.M. Saiful Islam, Hiroaki Hirai and Yoshiaki Kitaya
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.
Key words: CO2 concentration, CO2 gas diffusion coefficient, Daucus carota, growth, harvest index, storage roots, yield
Abstract: Three varieties of carrot (Daucus carota L.), 'Tokinashigosun', 'Hitokuchi' and 'Kurodagosun' were cultured hydroponically with rockwool blocks (56^8^30 cm high) in a greenhouse for 90 days. Two types of rockwool block, with holes and without holes were used in the study. Rockwool blocks with holes had seven rooting holes (10 cm in depth and 2.5 cm in diameter) 8 cm apart, which were filled with vermiculite for promoting root development. Rockwool blocks without holes were used as the control for comparison. Two rockwool blocks were placed side by side in a plastic box (58x18x18 cm high) and 14 plants were grown in each plastic box. The rockwool blocks were automatically sub-irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 35 ppm total N, 14 ppm P, 59 ppm K, 23 ppm Ca, 10 ppm Mg, 0.62 ppm Fe, 0.12 ppm Mn, 0.06 ppb B, 0.02 ppm Cu, 0.04 ppm Zn and 0.01 ppm Mo. The solution was added to the plastic boxes twice a day to keep the depth of the solution at 15 cm. The fresh and dry weights of the storage roots were 2 to 3 times greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than those without holes in each variety. The storage roots produced in the rockwool blocks with holes were 2 times longer than without holes in all the varieties. The diameter of storage roots was also greater in rockwool blocks with holes than without holes. Greater weights of the whole-plant and percent harvest index were obtained in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the varieties. Carbon dioxide concentration inside the rockwool blocks at a depth of 8 cm from the top surface and 1 cm beside the storage roots were lower in the rockwool blocks with holes (0.08%) than in the without holes (0.11%). Carbon dioxide gas diffusion coefficient in the rockwool media was greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes. The hardness of the growing media was lower in the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite than in the without holes. Therefore, better aerating conditions inside the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite and lower hardness of the media would partly account for the better growth of storage roots in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the tested varieties.
Anjaneya Reddy, M.S. Patil, P.R. Dharmatti and T Rajasekaram
Department of Plant Pathology, UAS, Dharwad-05, Department of Horticulture, UAS, Dharwad-05
Key words: Tomato leaf curl, ELISA, PCR and screening
Abstract: During summer 2005 out of 50 genotypes screened for tomato leaf curl virus under field conditions, none of the lines tested were resistant, however, six genotypes showed mild infection and nine genotypes showed moderate infection. In the second season, i.e., 2006 only Nandi and Vybhav showed moderate resistant reaction, along with the new commercial hybrids Hy-558, Hy-530, NS-563 and NS-719. The variety Vybhav was found superior over other varieties against the disease. The presence of virus in the symptomatic hosts was confirmed by ELISA and PCR. The plant height of the genotypes contributes to maximum extent (52.21 %) to the divergence followed by yield per plant and per cent disease incidence (10.86 % each), but the vector population contributed least (0.97 %). As a result of D2 clustering, the commercial hybrids possessing lot of diversity fall in to four different clusters, cluster II had got six entries, cluster III 3 entries, cluster IV 6 entries and cluster V only one entry wheras cluster I had 50 entries.
Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour, Fahimeh Jamie and Seyed Ali Elahinia
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran; Center of Natural Resources research, Alborz- Karaj, Iran.
Key words: Stone fruit trees, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, canker, Iran
Abstract: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes canker, leafspots and necrosis of the bark of cherry, plum, and peach fruit trees. Symptoms caused by this pathogen on leaves, blossoms, and fruit, reported as common else where, are rare in Guilan cherry orchards. In this research, during survey from cherry, plum, and peach orchards in different areas of Guilan province (Talesh, Hashtpar, Astaneh-Ashrafieh and Lahijan), samples were taken from infected tissues of disease trees. For isolation of bacteria causing disease, infected tissue were crushed in bacteriological saline (0.85% w/v NaCl) and 100uL of juice was cultured on nutrient agar (NA) and King's B medium. Strains of bacteria rod-shaped, gram negative and aerobic bacterium were isolated. The strains produced Levan on media including sucrose. All strains made Hypersensitive Reaction (HR) on tobacco and geranium leaves. All of the isolated bacteria were oxidase, nitrate, tween 80 hydrolysis, indole and starch hydrolysis negative and could not rot potato tuber slices, produced H2S, and grew at 36?C. The isolates could use citrate and urease. The isolates produced acid from sorbitol, galactose, myo-inositol, manitol, xylose, maltose and sucrose. Their gelatin test were positive. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, pathogenicity properties and total cellular protein profiles (SDS-PAGE), the predominate pathogenic type was identified as P. s. pv. syringae. This is the first report of the existence of P. s. pv. syringae on stone fruit trees in Iran.
Abstract: In the 2004 and 2005 seasons, experiments were carried out at INTA Balcarce, Argentina on potato cultivars Kennebec, Innovator and Shepody, with different susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. A randomized block design with four replications was created. Visual observations during the crop cycle were carried out in order to record the number of healthy and infected plants, with symptomatology of stem canker produced by R. solani. After harvest, the potatoes in each block were washed and weighted, the total yield recorded and the marketable and "seed" potatoes were classified into healthy, cracked or malformed tubers. The best results on the reduction of infected plants were obtained with the highest dose of fluazinam (as Frowncide 50SC) and pencycuron (as Monceren 25SC). Commercial and "seed" tuber yields in the Spunta cultivar showed no significant differences among treatments, but with the Shepody cultivar, when the severity of the disease was high (2004) both fungicide treatments surpassed the untreated check. When the severity of the disease was low (2005), all chemical treatments registered higher commercial and "seed" tubers yields than the untreated check. In Kennebec and Spunta cultivars, all the treatments - except the lowest dose of fluazinam - accomplished a higher quantity of healthy tubers and surpassed the untreated check; although only the highest doses showed the highest yield of healthy tubers, showing a positive relationship with respect to the applied dose. Only the highest doses of fluazinam considerably reduced diseased tuber incidence in comparison to the untreated check.
A.B.M. Sharif Hossain and Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce
Plant Physiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol (ET) at different concentrations on longevity and senescence delay in bougainvillea flowers. The treatments were water (control), 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. Positive response was found in case of 4, 8 and 10% of ET after a certain period of treatment application. Dry weight was higher in lower concentrations of ethanol and lower in higher concentrations. Flower longevity was 2 days longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations of ethanol. Petal wilting and abscission occurred 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. Perianth abscission also appeared 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. However, petal discoloration (color change) was later in control, 2, 4, 8 and 10% than in 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. The results showed that flower vase life was significantly affected by ethanol concentrations as well as longevity was longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations.
Mohammad Reza Zokaee Khosroshahi, Mahmood EsnaAshari and Mohammad Fattahi
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
Key words: Sweet cherry, P. avium, Surati-e-Hamedan, putrescine, postharvest life
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous putrescine on postharvest life and quality of sweet cherry fruit, cultivar "Surati-e Hamedan" at 2?C. Fruits were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM putrescine as well as distilled water (Control) for 10 minutes, then transferred into the fridge (2?C). The rate of ethylene production, weight loss, tissue firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and pH of fruits were determined 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 d after the beginning of storage. Parameters associated with ripening processes, including softening and loss of titratable acidity, significantly decreased by application of putrescine. Soluble solids content of cherries also increased by the putrescine treatment. In addition, cherries treated with higher concentrations of putrescine showed lower rate of ethylene production. Weight loss of the fruits was affected by putrescine in a concentration dependent manner, while putrescine did not affect pH of fruit juice.
Som Dev Sharma and Pramod Kumar
Scientist, Department of Pomology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP-173 230 India; Research Officer(R & D Agriculture), Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Lmited (GOI), Chembur, Mumbai-74, India.
Key words: AM fungi, Azotobacter, root colonization, correlation, mango
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to find out the nutritional status of mango orchards cv. Dashehari located in north- western Himalayan region of India and to establish the relationship of soil microflora especially, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Azotobacter with growth, fruit yield, and soil and leaf nutrient contents. The study revealed that the correlation between AM spore population and shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, available Cu and Zn content and leaf N, P, Cu, Zn and Mn contents was found to be positive and significant, whereas, the relationship with soil as well as leaf K content was negative but significant. Azotobacter count was positively and significantly correlated with fruit yield, soil organic carbon (OC) and leaf Fe content, while, it was negative and significant with leaf K content. The relationship of per cent root colonization with soil OC and available N content of orchard soil was found to be positive and significant, and with shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, electrical conductivity, available P, K, Cu, Zn and Mn content and P, K and Cu contents of leaf, it was negative but non-significant.
Balcha Abera, Legesse Negash and Jochen Kumlehn
Department ofBiology, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Leibniz Insti?tute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Plant Reproductive Biology, Correnstrasse 3, D-06466 Gatersleben, Germany
Abstract: Effects of seed sterilization, storage time, and temperature as well as extent of seeding survival and establishment under glasshouse versus nursery conditions were studied for E. kebericho. Seeds sterilized for 9 and 5 minutes in 70 % ethanol and in 10% sodium hypochlorite, respectively, germinated best (95.2 ? 1.2%) on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 10 g L-1 phytoagar. Further increases or decreases in sterilization time decreased germination percentage and increased contamination, respectively. Unsterilized seeds (control) were completely contaminated before the emergence of radicle as a result of fungal growth. Seed germination percentage declined with increasing storage time and dropped from 94.6 ? 0.4 % to 32.2 ? 1.2% in 15 months. 25 oC was an optimal temperature for best germination (94.6 ? 2.4%) of seeds. Seeds sown in pots containing a mixture of sand, nursery soil, and animal manure in a ratio of 0.5: 2.5: 0.5 respectively, germinated significantly (P< 0.05) compared to other soil ratios. Increase in sand or animal manure ratios decreased germination, while increase in nursery soil increased percentage and rate of germination. High percentage (96.0 ? 0.5%) germination was obtained with the seeds sown in nursery soil-surface mixed additives compared with the control. Seedlings of nursery bed origin survived best compared to those in vitro or pot origin seedlings. Ultimately, seedlings growth with vigorous and orthotropic developmental pattern was obtained under nursery conditions, compared to those in the glasshouse, which showed stunted and plagiotropic developmental pattern. The study found that seeds stored for less than 5 months, and at 25 oC, were the most suitable for in vitro and ex vitro propagation of E. kebericho.
Ang BoonHaw; Chan LaiKeng
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
Key words: benzyladenine, culture media, IBA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoots, tissue culture
Abstract: S. acmella [Blainvillea acmella] was successfully micropropagated using axillary buds as explants. The aseptic axillary buds formed multiple shoots within 5 weeks when cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg benzyladenine (BA)/l. The addition of IBA as low as 2 mg/l into the MS medium containing BA had no significant effect on the multiple shoot formation. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg BA/l was sufficient for the proliferation of rooted multiple shoots. First subculturing of the in vitro individual shoots in the same proliferation medium could double the formation of multiple shoots.
Yeshitela, T; Robbertse, P J; Stassen, P J C
Department of Plant Sciences, Alemaya University, P.O. Box 165 Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
Abstract: In a study conducted at Bavaria Estate, Hoedspruit, the northern province of South Africa, the mango cultivars Keitt and Tommy Atkins were subjected to the following treatments over 2 seasons: (1) inflorescence removal at the point of apical bud attachment during full bloom; (2) inflorescence removal together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence (about 5 cm from the tip) during full bloom; (3) removal of 50% of the total inflorescences (every alternate shoot of the tagged branches) together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence during full bloom; (4) renewal pruning where 20-30% of termination shoots with weak, misshaped and small fruits were cut back to a suitable node in October; (5) postharvest pruning where termination shoots that had been bearing fruits the previous season were cut back to a suitable node; (6) removal of terminal buds just before bud break; and (7) no pruning treatments (control). Pruning at the point of apical bud attachment induced re-flowering, m
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Mahendran, P P; Ragunath, K P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Abstract: The Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) nutrient index ranges were derived from a Muscat grape database to relate nutrient concentration and indexes with berry yield. A Muscat grape database of 188 observations on commercial yields and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were taken. The proportion of low-yield specimens in the survey population was computed at inflection point of variance ratio function and was associated with a Cate and Nelson statistical value (r2) of 4.7 that was confirmed in the validation subpopulation. Critical CND nutrient indexes were found to be symmetrical about zero as follows: -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/N, -0.39 to +0.39 for CND/P, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/K, -0.93 to +0.93 for CND/Na, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/Ca, -0.33 to +0.33 for CND/Mg, -0.60 to +0.60 for CND/S, -1.02 to +1.02 for CND/B, -0.58 to +0.58 for CND/Zn, -0.78 to +0.78 for CND/Cu, -0.55 to +0.55 for CND/Fe, -0.16 to +0.16 for CND/Mn and -0.49 to +0.49 for
Saravanan, T; Muthusamy, M; Marimuthu, T
Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilpatti - 628 501, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to develop gamma radiation-induced resistant clones of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Rasthali against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense race-1. Shoot buds of Rasthali irradiated with 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy by using Co60 in a gamma chamber were used for in vitro culture establishment and to develop resistant clones. Shoot buds irradiated with 40 Gy had the maximum shoots per culture and percentage of culture establishment. Other doses of gamma radiation inhibited the culture establishment when compared to the untreated control. The shoots irradiated with 40 Gy were used to develop resistant clones against toxins of race 1. To standardize the concentration of the culture filtrate of the pathogen for the tolerant clone selection, the multiple bud clumps were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2-15% crude culture filtrates. The growth of multiple bud clumps was completely inhibited on the medium containing 10% culture filtrate. In the successive selection, the rate of survival of the plantlets incr
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Deepak Ohri
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2002/03 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India to test the suitability of direct and indirect selection for high foliage yield and quality in Chenopodium album over successive cuttings. Thirteen germplasm lines were evaluated for moisture, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, fibre, protein and ascorbic acid contents and foliage yield. High heritability and moderate to high genetic advance were observed for all characters, except for moisture content, in all cuttings. Chlorophyll a exhibited the highest correlated response for the first and third cuttings, while fibre content exhibited the highest correlated response for the second cutting. A multiple selection index is suggested to enhance foliage yield. The estimates of correlated response and relative selection efficiencies were in proportion with each other although values for the latter were less than one.
Mar?a del R. Moreiraab, Alejandra G. Ponceb, Carlos E. del Vallea, L. Pereyraa and S.I. Rourab
Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Argentina, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET). Argentina.
Abstract: Changes in ascorbic acid contents, microbial population and sensory attributes of cut Romaine lettuce subjected to thermal shocks were investigated. Immersion of cut lettuce in the thermal baths produced reduction in the ascorbic acid contents between 190 and 300 g kg-1, with the greater losses corresponding to the higher bath temperatures. However, the rate of ascorbic acid degradation during refrigerated storage was independent of the thermal treatment and all samples presented a sharp decrease during the first day of storage and a gradual decrease thereafter. Thermal shocks did not reduce the initial microbial population. During storage, an increment in microbial counts was observed, being more notorious in samples that had been exposed to the highest shock temperature (50 ?C). The thermal treatment at 50 ?C was the only one to delay the onset of midrib and edge browning up to four days of refrigerated storage. This midrib and edge browning was considered to the most relevant to the overall visual quality of the product.
Himanish Das; Jayaraman, S; Mahadeva Naika
Food Contaminants Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore - 570 011, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the uptake of carbendazim by 8 fruits and vegetables, i.e. tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), orange (Citrus sinensis), grape (Vitis vinifera), sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) and banana (Musa paradisiaca), dipped in aqueous carbendazim suspension under laboratory conditions. The effect of carbendazim dips on the storage life of apple and tomato was also investigated. The uptake of carbendazim varied significantly, ranging from 68.97+or-2.89 to 813.64+or- 11.46 micro g (mean 342.13 micro g), among the fruits and vegetables. The lowest uptake was recorded in apple, followed by banana, orange, tomato, okra, grape, sapota and carrot. Dip treatments more effectively extended the storage life of tomato than apple and at ambient (32+or-2 degrees C) than at low temperature (7+or-2 degrees C). Dip treatments also decreased the cumulative physiological loss in weight and spoilage of tomato and apple,
L. Andreini and S. Bartolini
Scuola Superiore S. Anna di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento, Piazza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56100 Pisa, Italia.
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the morphological and histochemical evolution of the bud meristems of 'Lavinia' nectarine cultivar. Moreover, the effectiveness of Release LC (a gibberellin chemical compound) in controlling the rate of flower bud differentiation was also evaluated. During a two-year period, the Release LC was applied in postharvest to avoid problems of possible chemical residues on marketable fruits. To determine the effect of treatment, several biological parameters such as initial flower and vegetative bud number, flower bud drop, evolution of the flower bud phenological stages, rate of bloom and fruit set were recorded. To establish the floral differentiation stage, the meristematic apices were collected before and after treatment and microscopically observed. The thin sections were analysed using histological (apex size, developmental stages of meristematic apex, co-axial stage), and histochemical (RNA fluorescent staining) techniques. In 'Lavinia' cv., the critical phase of the meristematic apex evolution occurred from May to June (60 and 90 days after full bloom): the presence of triple apices increased rapidly, the co-axial phase was achieved, the width and height of the meristematic dome increased markedly and the RNA appeared by a weak staining. As regards the flower bud differentiation control by exogenous treatments with Release LC, the different results obtained in our experiments indicate that the efficacy of treatment strictly depends on the growth stage of a meristematic apex.
Suleiman, M K; Bhat, N R; Bellen, R R
Aridland Agriculture and Greenery Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.
Key words: canopy, drought, growth, irrigation, ornamental plants, plant height, plant water relations, rosemary, water stress
Abstract: To promote efficient use of expensive water resource as well as to maintain soil productivity and health in Kuwait, it is important to ascertain plant performance with regard to different irrigation regimes. A study was conducted to determine the effects of induced water stress on the growth and greenery impact of four ornamental plants, namely Vitex agnus-castus, Caesalpinia mexicana, Myoporum parvifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis, grown under the harsh arid climate of Kuwait. Acclimatized plants of these species were planted in Salmiya in July 2002. Plants were subjected to water stress by irrigating them at the rate of 25, 50 or 100% of the daily evapotranspiration rates during that month (3.75, 7.5 or 15.0 mm/d). The irrigation was adjusted according to average monthly ET rates. Growth and visual greenery impact data were recorded at weekly intervals during the first 87 days after planting and then at monthly intervals. Soil moisture was determined at weekly intervals using field tensiometers and oven-dr
Pardo, A; Juan, J A de; Pardo, J E
Centro de Investigacion, Experimentacion y Servicios del Champinon (CIES), C/ Penicas s/n, Apartado 8, E-16220 Quintanar del Rey, Cuenca, Spain.
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of composted vine shoots (as alternative to peat) as casing material in the cultivation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The effect of scratching on the suitability of the casing materials based on peat and vine shoots was also examined. The treatments consisted of scratched and non-scratched soil + sphagnum peat (S+SP, 4:1 v/v), soil + black peat (S+BP, 4:1 v/v) and soil + composted vine shoots (S+CV, 4:1 v/v). Based on the main production parameters measured (number of mushrooms produced, unitary weight, yield and earliness), composted vine shoots performed similarly to peat-based casing materials. However, the possibilities of using composted vine shoots are limited due to the appearance of spots caused by Trichoderma spp. on the fruit bodies. Scratching created an open structure in the casing layer to enable uniform and abundant fructification. In general, for the different casing types, scratching had a positive effect on fructification. This practice ind
A. Tazuke, P. Boonkorkaew, S. Hikosaka and N. Sugiyama
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami, Ibaraki, 300-0393, Japan, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.
Key words: Cucumber, gynoecious cultivar, fruit growth, fruit abortion, pollination, relative growth rate
Abstract: Fruit growth of the gynoecious cucumber 'NK x AN8' was measured non-destructively to clarify whether the presence of fruit at lower nodes caused the abortion of fruit at upper nodes. When only one fruit per plant was allowed to grow, fruit growth could be divided into two phases: slow exponential and fast exponential. Phase change from slow to fast occurred when cumulative temperatures (CTs) after anthesis reached 38 and 54?C d for pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit, respectively. The CT was calculated as the sum of the differences between daily temperatures and 5?C. When fruit at nodes 4 and above were allowed to grow, the first growth phase was prolonged. Furthermore, parthenocarpic fruit aborted frequently when the sum of the relative growth rate (RGR) with respect to the CT (the sum of RGRs) for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. Pollination with pollen of the monoecious cucumber '028' strongly suppressed fruit abortion; a large number of fruits could develop to a commercial size even when the sum of RGRs for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. These results suggested that fruit abortion is more related to the existence of actively growing fruit than to the absolute amount of dry mass accumulation in the fruit.
Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S K; Suchitra ; Singh, K P
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: The effects of different pulsing treatments, i.e. 10% sucrose + 250 ppm aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) for 12 h, 10% sucrose + 0.5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 12 h and 8% sucrose + 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) for 12 h, and durations of cold storage, i.e. 4 and 5 days, on the cut spikes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double were studied. Pulsing and cold storage improved the postharvest life and quality of tuberose cut flowers. Pulsing with 10% sucrose + 250 ppm Al2(SO4)3for 12 h and cold storage of cut spikes for 4 days was the best treatment combination for rachis length, delay in wilting of first, third and last opened floret pair, extension of useful life, retention of fragrance, water uptake, opening of florets, increase in diameter and length of first, third and last opened floret pair, and vase life. This treatment also recorded the maximum vase life of 8.90 days.
R.N. Kulkarni, K. Baskaran and Y Sreevalli
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Resource Centre, Allalasandra, Bangalore 560 065, India.
Abstract: In periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), pink, white and red-eyed (white corolla with red centre) are three common corolla colours, which are due to epistatic interaction between two genes R and W. Violet corolla, which is not found commonly in natural populations, is reported to be due to another gene B which blues the pigment in pink genotypes (R- W-). Recently, another gene O and its allele Om have been reported to determine two uncommon corolla colours, orange-red and magenta corolla, respectively. Since, the relationship between genes determining violet, orange-red and magenta corolla was not known, a strain possessing violet corolla and white eye (VI) was crossed with strains possessing orange-red corolla and white eye (OR) and magenta corolla and white eye (MJ-1) to study: (i) the relationship between genes involved in the production of violet, orange-red and magenta corolla, (ii) to study the possibility of producing novel corolla colours and (iii) to determine the validity of the gene interaction models proposed earlier. The F1 plants of both crosses, VI x OR and VI x MJ-1, had violet corolla. The F2 generation of the cross VI x OR segregated into plants with (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) orange-red corolla, and (iv) white corolla in the ratio of 45:12:3:4, while the progeny of the backcross F1 x OR segregated into three types of plants, (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, and (iii) orange-red corolla in the ratio of 2:1:1. The F2 generation of the cross VI x MJ-1 segregated into five kinds of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) magenta corolla, (iv) rose corolla, and (v) white corolla in the ratio of 144:48:12:36:16, while the progeny of the backcross, F1 x MJ-1 segregated into four types of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) magenta corolla, (iii) rose corolla and (iv) pink corolla in the ratio of 1:1:1:1. The results suggested that genes involved B, R, W, O/Omand J were inherited independently and that the gene B blued the corolla pigment in B-RRwwO- genotypes but not in B-RRwwOm-jj and B-RRwwOm-JJ genotypes. No new corolla colours were observed in the studied crosses due to the interaction between genes governing violet, orange-red and magenta corolla. The observed segregation for different corolla colours in the studied crosses was same as that expected from independent segregation and known interactions between the genes involved, validating the earlier proposed models.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Key words: boron, chemical composition, iron, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, plant composition, plant nutrition, rhizomes, turmeric, zinc
Abstract: The optimum levels for nutrients in the rhizomes of turmeric were generated by Critical Value Approach (CVA), Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutritional Diagnosis (CND). Approximately 500 soil and rhizome samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS for rhizomes, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 17% of the turmeric growing area was limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 23% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS.
E. Hemaprabha and R. Balasaraswathi
Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural
Abstract: Tomato (L. esculentum Mill), a popular vegetable in tropics is an excellent source for vitamin A, C, carotenoids and other health related components. It tops the list of industrial crops because of its outstanding processing qualities. It is valued for both its fresh and processed forms. Biochemical analysis in different wild species, varieties and hybrids of tomato showed the wild species, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA 1593 to be a rich source for lycopene specific genes. Partial cDNA of lycopene specific Phytoene desaturase gene TNAU P was isolated from L. pimpinellifolium LA 1593 by RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis of the partial cDNA showed 99.6% similarity with already available Phytoene desaturase gene from L. esculentum. Also, the sequence showed considerable homology with Phytoene dehydrogenase, Zeta carotene desaturase and Phytoene desaturase genes from Gentian, Oryza, Momardica, citrus and pea. The high intensity of the amplified product in L. pimpinellifolium coupled with 99.6 % homology to L. esculentum inferred that the level of expression of Phytoene desaturase is more in L. pimpinellifolium. Isolation of Phytoene desaturase genes can be further exploited to produce transgenic plants with increased content of lycopene by transferring the genes from wild species to cultivars.
Sanjeev Sharma; Dohroo, N P
Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.) - 173 230, India.
Abstract: Seven species of VAM fungi were found associated with ginger rhizosphere in Himachal Pradesh, India. They included Glomus mosseae, G. caledonium, G. pulvinatum, Acaulospora laevis, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora albida and Scutellospora minuta. Among the different VAM fungi species, frequency of Glomus species was maximum. The morphological characters of these VAM fungi are described.
Dinesh, M R
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to determine the presence of reciprocal effects and to assess the parents best suited for the transfer of desirable characters in commercial cultivars of mango. The cultivars Alphonso, Banganapalli, Neelum, Kalapadi and Janardhan Pasand were utilized for crossing, including reciprocals. The F1 intervarietal progenies of the combinations Alphonso x Banganapalli, Alphonso x Neelum, Alphonso x Kalapadi and Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand were evaluated for different characters, i.e. fruit weight, fruit volume, total soluble solids (TSS), skin weight, stone weight and pulp percentage. The study showed that non-additive variance controls the characters. Heritability was low and the chances of hybrid vigour manifesting for the characters in the F1 generation were high. Selection of progenies can be made based on fruit size, i.e. medium-sized fruits will have good TSS and big-sized fruits will decrease this character. For the characters studied, the phenotypic coeffic
Vandna Pandey; Ahmed, Z; Narendra Kumar
Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: Eight inbred lines of cabbage, namely Sel-2, Sel-3, Sel-4, Sel-1, Sel-36 Sector, Sel-6, Sel-5 and Sel-7, were crossed in all possible combinations (excluding reciprocals), and the 28 F1s along with their parents were planted in September 2001 in Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India. Sel-1 x Sel-36 Sector was identified as the best among all combinations, having significant hybrid vigour (heterosis) for biological yield, head weight, net weight of head and head size index.
L' ubomir, H
Slovak Water Management Enterprise, S.P., Irrigation and Drainage Branch Office, Vrakunska 29, 82563, Bratislava 211, Slovakia.
Abstract: Experiments were conducted during 1999 and 2000 in Bratislava, Slovak Republic to evaluate the effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on the quality of apple cultivars Gala, Jonagold and Idared. The treatments were: (A) liquid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (B) liquid fertilizer (120 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (C) solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) with irrigation; and (K) control, solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) without irrigation (atmospheric precipitation only). An increased rate of N (120 kg/ha) resulted in bigger shares of Selective and Class I grade fruits. A similar effect was produced by drip irrigation and typical response of individual cultivars was confirmed. In 1999, the share of Selective grade fruits by Gala was 93.3% in the non-irrigated treatment, which declined to 39.59% in the following year. An increased rate of N and
Takayuki Inokuma, Tomoyuki Kinouchi and Shigeru Satoh
Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan. Present address: GraduateSchool of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.
Abstract: 'Lillipot' carnation, which is usually cultivated as a potted ornamental, was transformed with a cDNA for carnation 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Two lines, which harbor an sACO transgene, had a vase life of cut flowers more than twice longer than that of the non-transformed (NT) control. Flowers of the long vase life lines senesced with discoloring and browning in petal margins, which is typical to ethylene-independent senescence in carnation flowers. They produced negligible amount of ethylene for the first 8 day, whereas flowers of the NT control showed a climacteric ethylene production with a maximum on day 3. Transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 were absent in petals of the long vase life flowers undergoing senescence. The present study revealed that transformation with sACO transgene may be useful to generate potted carnation plants with a long display time.
Tetsuro Nishimura, Naoka Hashimoto, Sayed M. A. Zobayed and Eiji Goto
Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, Japan.
Abstract: Hypericin and pseudohypericin are the major bioactive constituents of floral parts of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. The principle objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of blue, blue and red mixed, and red light on flowering time and concentration of hypericin, pseudohypericin and hyperforin in the floral tissues of H. perforatum plants. The results revealed that red light promoted flowering and production of the three major medicinal components, indicating the influence of spectral characteristics of light on flowering of H. perforatum plants. Spectral quality of light was found to be an important factor in controlling the flowering of H. perforatum plants.
Fageria, M S; Preeti Khandelwal; Dhaka, R S
Post-harvest Technology Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329, India.
Key words: ascorbic acid, blanching, carbohydrates, chemical composition, crop quality, fruits, maturity stage, organoleptic traits, plant composition, protein content, sulfitation
Abstract: Fruits of lehsua (Cordia myxa) were harvested at 3 different maturity stages (25, 35 and 45 days after fruit set) from plants grown in Jobner, Rajasthan, India, during 2000/01 and 2001/02. Blanching and sulfitation treatments of the fruits indicated that the drying ratio, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were higher in mature fruits, while rehydration ratio was higher in immature fruits. Ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were significantly higher when fruits were blanched for 3 minutes with 0.3% KMS. In general, harvesting at 45 days after fruit set and blanching for 3 min with 0.3% KMS resulted in better quality of sun dried fruits of lehsua.
Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L. Thomas and Melissa B. Riley
Department of Horticulture, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0375 USA; Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, SC 29414-5332 USA; Department of Packaging Sciences, Clemson University. Clemson, USA; Department of Plant Pathology and Physiol
Key words: Asteraceae, feverfew, Tanacetum parthenium, time of harvest, water stress, parthenolide, phenolics
Abstract: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip., Asteraceae) products have shown high variability in the market. The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental factors affect the composition of key phytochemicals in feverfew. Plants of feverfew were exposed to water stress in greenhouse and commercial field conditions. The highest yield of parthenolide (PRT) was found in plants that received reduced-water regimes. Phenolics concentration was higher in plants grown under adequate-water conditions. The effect of time of harvest on PRT concentration and phenolics content was also investigated. Increased PRT was found during afternoon hours whereas total phenolic compounds decreased during the photoperiod and increased at night. When plants were exposed to artificial light during night hours, the phenolics content remained low. Our results revealed that manipulating the environment to favour increased accumulation of PRT resulted in a decline of phenolics content in feverfew. These findings have implications on standardization of herbal products.
Gawankar, M S; Devmore, J P; Jamadagni, B M; Sagvekar, V V; Khan, H H
Agricultural Research Station, Mulde. Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharastra - 416 520, India.
Key words: crop yield, growth, inflorescences, leaves, oil palms, plant water relations, stems, water stress
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted from 1993/94 to 1998/99 in Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India to evaluate the effect of water stress on the growth and yield of Tenera oil palm [Elaeis guineensis]. Intermittent water stress (rainfed) reduced fresh fruit bunches yield by 88.46% compared with the non-stressed treatment (irrigated). Leaf production was reduced by 30% in the early growth phase and by 12.5% in the later growth phase due to water stress. Stem growth was reduced by 49.1% due to water stress. Production of male inflorescences was least affected, but female inflorescences were reduced by 86% under intermittent water stress. This resulted in more than 91% reduction in the number of fresh fruit bunches and ultimately caused 88.46% reduction in fresh fruit bunches yield.
Muthusamy Manoharan, Sharmin Khan and James O. Garner
Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, AR 71601, USA.
Abstract: Cowpea is a highly recalcitrant nutrient-rich leguminous vegetable crop. Efforts to genetically transform cowpea with insect-resistant genes remains a challenging task due to lack of an efficient regeneration system. We have established an efficient regeneration system in cowpea through shoot meristem. Shoot meristems were isolated from embryos that were precultured for 3-5 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 8.9 uM benzylaminopurine (BA). The isolated shoot meristems were cultured on MS medium containing 0.89 uM BA. After 3-4 weeks, multiple shoots were separated from the explant and cultured on half-strength MS medium for elongation and rooting. More than 90% of the regenerants formed roots. The rooted plantlets were transferred first to peat pellets and subsequently to the greenhouse. The plants were allowed to flower and set seed. The efficiency of regeneration in all four cultivars ranged from 76-87%, demonstrating a significant improvement over the published protocols (1-32%). At least six to seven plantlets were obtained from each meristem. The protocol using shoot meristems is simple, efficient, rapid and genotype-independent and may be amenable for transformation through particle bombardment.
Pareek, S; Dhaka, R S
Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Jobner - 303 329, India.
Abstract: Ten-year-old plants of 8 commercial cultivars of Ziziphus mauritiana (Gola, Seb, Umran, Mundia, Illaichi, Tikadi, Jogiya and Bagwadi) and 3 local selections of Z. rotundifolia [Z. nummularia] (Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) were evaluated in Jobner, Rajasthan, India. Correlation and path coefficients were assessed for 13 yield attributes, i.e. duration of flowering, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone weight, stone length, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity, fruit yield and harvest duration. Fruit set, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity and harvest duration had significant positive correlation with fruit yield. Fruit length had the highest direct positive effect on fruit yield, followed by fruit weight and fruit breadth.
Pradeep Kumar; Singh, H K; Saxena, R P
Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India.
Key words: carbendazim, chemical control, copper oxychloride, disease resistance, fungal diseases, fungicides, germplasm, mancozeb, neem extracts, non wood forest products, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens
Abstract: Forty ber (Zizyphus mauritiana [Ziziphus mauritiana]) accessions, grown in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, were screened against black leaf spot disease (caused by Isariopsis indica var. ziziphi) during 1997-98 to 1999-2000 to determine the resistant source(s) for crop improvement. Tikri during 1997-98 and 1999-2000; Seedless during 1998-99; and ZG-3 during 1999-2000 were found immune. Guli, Seedless and Ber selection-5 during 1997-98; Guli, Darackhi-2, Ber selection-2, 3, 4 and 5 during 1998-99; and Jalandher, Kali, Bagwadi, Banarasi Peondi, Illaichi, Villaiti, Sanour-3, Chhohara, Katha, Seedless, Darakhi-2 and Ber selection-5 during 1999-2000 were found resistant. Other accessions showed moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against the disease. An experiment on the management of the disease was conducted with ber cv. Gola (a susceptible cultivar). Single spraying of fungicides (0.1% carbendazim, 0.2% mancozeb and 0.2% copper oxychloride) and 3.0% neem [Azadirachta indica] powder (Nimuri) at 10 lit
A. Nookaraju, S.M Barreto and D.C. Agrawal
Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India
Abstract: Grapevine genotypes differ in tissue culture requirements and thus require optimized culture conditions for in vitro propagation. Single node segments of Crimson Seedless cultured on six different basal media i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS), Eriksson (ER), Gamborg (B5), Nitsch and Nitsch (NN), Woody plant medium (WPM) and Chee and Pool (C2d) showed different percentage of shoot initiation and morphogenetic responses. The maximum shoot initiation (90.0%) was observed in MS medium. Except ER, all other media induced rooting at the base of nodal segments in varying percentages though number and quality of roots and their establishment on transfer to pots varied greatly. WPM induced the maximum rooting in nodal segments (69.1%) with establishment rate of 100.0%. Induction of multiple shoots in nodal segments was achieved on inclusion of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (8.87 uM) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (1.48 uM) in the MS medium. In second sub-culture i.e., at 90 days, shoot bud proliferation could be increased many fold on transfer of these initial shoot clumps to glass bottles instead of culture tubes. The maximum average number of primary shoots (19.5 per explant) was achieved on MS with BA (8.87 uM) and IBA (1.48 uM). Elongation of shoots was achieved on MS with BA (2.22 uM) + a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.54 uM). Induction of ex vitro rooting and establishment of rooted shoots after transfer to pots was achieved in different efficiencies when shoots were given pulse treatment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or IBA or NAA at 57.08, 49.0 and 53.71 uM, respectively, for 5 or 10 min. Survival of in vitro and ex vitro-rooted shoots on potting was 90.0 and 100.0%, respectively.
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Katiyar, R S; Deepak Ohri
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: Eight exotic genotypes of Chenopodium quinoa were sown on normal and sodic soils in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2000-01 to compare the grain yield potential, variability and genetic association among the different component traits (plant height, stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, inflorescence length and dry weight of plant) and their direct and indirect effects on yield. High heritability and moderate genetic advance was observed for inflorescence length and grain yield on sodic soil and for stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, dry weight of plant and inflorescence length on normal soil. Stem diameter and number of inflorescence per plant exhibited high direct path (0.837 and 0.761, respectively) and significant positive association (0.979 and 0.967, respectively) with grain yield on sodic soil, while dry weight of plant showed high correlation (0.889) and direct path (0.972) with grain yield on normal soil. The bre
Singh, S K; Pitam Chandra; Singh, K P
PFDC, Division of Agricultural Engineering, IARI, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: This paper discusses the automation or support system for decision making in greenhouses. This automation is practised in the form of a computer program which are governed by setpoints. The choice of setpoints for environmental parameters must be done by a reasoning process integrating the situation outside the greenhouses, and inside situation that will be managed in an advantageous manner ensuring a profitable, though safe combination of growth and development factors while keeping the energy spending within acceptable bounds and as low as possible.
A. Misra and P. Singh
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015, India.
Abstract: Changes in growth attributes, photosynthesis (Pn), photosynthetic pigments with y-Glu.cys peptidase peptide and Zn accumulation in a Zn-efficient genotype of spearmint MSS-5 were investigated. Effect of phosphorus toxicity on MSS-5 were significantly different than the other genotypes; Arka, Neera and control (the local strain), in terems of phenotypic changes in height and a decrease in chlorophyll contents and CO2 exchange rate. Heavy P manuring lead to the tolerance of Zn accumulation in MSS-5 with y-Glu.cys. peptidase peptide with high protein contents and Pn. Hence, the P toxicity induced a differential utilization of y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide for higher accumulation of Zn in MSS-5 spearmint with higher photosynthetic rate for increasing the height and essential monoterpene oil(s). The study also indicated that accumulation of toxic heavy metal-Zn with y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide made protein synthesis easier with antioxidants Zn cofactor enzymes.
Das, A K
National Research Centre for Citrus, Amravati Road, PO Box 464, Nagpur - 440 010, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: Of all the agricultural pests and diseases that threaten citrus crops, citrus canker is one of the most devastating. The disease, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, occurs in large areas of the world's citrus growing countries including India. At least 3 distinct forms or types of citrus canker are recognized. Among these, Asiatic form (Canker A) is the most destructive and affects most of the major citrus cultivars. Severe infection of the disease produces a variety of effects including defoliation, dieback, severely blemished fruit, reduced fruit quality and premature fruit drop. Warm, humid, cloudy climate, along with heavy rainfall and strong wind promotes the disease. Control of canker in countries or regions where the disease is not present include quarantine or regulatory programme to prohibit introduction of infected citrus plant material and fruit, as well as continuous and strict surveying in the field and the immediate destruction of infected trees. In countries where canker
Anthony W. Kahtz
University of Illinois Extension, Mt. Vernon, Illinois
Abstract: Growth of Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) 'Early Amethyst' and Ilex glabra (L.) 'Compacta' liners were evaluated in substrate containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% composted biosolids as compared to a 3:2:1 (v:v:v) pine bark:peat:sand horticultural mix. Biosolid waste substrate amended with biosolids had higher pH, EC, nitrate, bulk density and container capacity compared to a standard horticultural nursery mix. Total porosity and air-filled capacity were greater for the control compared to substrate amended with biosolids. The effects of substrate amended with composted biosolids on growth varied for each species. Callicarpa dichotoma "Early Amethyst' liners grown in substrate amended with 20, 40 and 60% biosolid waste had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to the control. Ilex glabra 'Compacta' liners grown in the control (standard nursery mix) had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to any biosolid amended substrate. It was concluded that substrate amended with biosolid waste can be utilized for the container production of plants, however, its usage may be species specific.
M.M. ElFouly, S.H.A. Shaaban and A.A. ElSayed
Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.
Abstract: The study was conducted for two successive years at a private farm in El-Saf, Giza, Egypt on 19 years old trees of olive cultivars, Picual, Aggizi and Manzanillo, grown in calcareous soils. Leaf nutrients were measured bi-monthly during the 2001-2002 growing season. The study revealed that most of nutrients in the soil were at inadequate level. Nutrient concentrations in the leaves of the three cultivars were nearly the same. Results revealed that leaf N ranged between low to satisfactory. P contents were adequate in spring while inadequate in summer. K leaf contents were adequate. Peaks of Mg were found to be the highest during winter. Ca peaks were observed during March-June. Fe and Zn were inadequate while Mn was adequate. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn peaked during June, which could be due the repeated foliar application of these nutrients during this period. The seasonal nutrient changes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) of the olive leaves are supposed to be used as a guide for proper fertilization. Nutrients should be added as acidic fertilizer to the soil, which is useful in calcareous and high pH conditions.
R. Crofton Sloan and Susan S. Harkness
North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 1690, Verona, MS, 38879, USA.
Key words: Zinnia elegans, zinnia, cut flower, field production
Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and planting date on zinnia (Zinnia elegans)cut flower production. Parameters evaluated were the number of days to harvest, duration of harvest period for each planting date, number of stems per plant, stem length and diameter. Plants from the May planting date produced stems over a longer period of time compared to plants from the June and July plantings with the exception of 'Scarlet Splendor' from the July planting. Within each of the three planting dates, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of stems produced per plant due to the cultivar effect for 10 of the 13 cultivars evaluated. A trend of increasing stem and bloom size from the May planting date to the July planting was observed. The median number of stems produced by the zinnia cultivars in this study from the May, June, and July planting dates were respectively 21.6, 10.8 and 14.5 stems per plant for plants spaced one foot apart in the row. The potential stem yield for a single 100 ft row of the zinnia cultivars included in this trial was 2160, 1080 and 1450 stems for the production life of May, June, and July plantings, or 4690 stems for the three plantings combined. The cut flower zinnias evaluated in this study were very productive during the summer growing season.
H.S. Balpande, O. Challa and Jagdish Prasad
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 010, Maharashtra, India.
Key words: Grape, soil characterstics, growth, yield, drainage, depth, available water content
Abstract: Six grape growing typical pedons in Nasik district, Maharashtra were characterised and soil-site parameters were correlated with yield and yield attributes of the crop. These soils were very shallow (Darana), moderately deep (Mahiravani, Kothure), shallow (Shivdi), deep (Talegaon) and very deep (Andersool) and characterised by well drained (Darana, Mahiravani, Shivdi) and moderately well drained (Talegaon, Kothure, Andersool). The height, stem girth, spread volume, bunch per plant, berries per bunch were very much related with soil depth, drainage, pH, available water content and DTPA extractable micronutrient cations.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Jagadeeswaran, R; Mahendran, P P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, foliar diagnosis, iron, leaves, magnesium, manganese, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nitrogen, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nut
Abstract: The optimum levels for 12 nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the leaves of turmeric were generated using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) approaches. Approximately 500 soil and leaf samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 9% of the turmeric growing area was severely limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 20% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS. The order of nutrient imbalance was in the order S > B > Mg > Cu > P > Na > Ca > K > Zn > N > Fe > Mn based on DRIS, S > B > Cu > Ca > Na > Zn > Mg > P > Fe > Mn > K
Ruchi Bist, H. Punetha, A.K. Gaur and L.D. Bist
Department of Biochemistry, Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.
Key words: Picrorhiza kurroa, axillary bud, In vitro multiplication, micropropagation
Abstract: Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (Kutki) has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract, fever, and to treat dyspepsia, chronic diarrhoea and scorpion sting in Ayurveda medicine owing to the presence of active principles in root and rhizomes. The plant is self-regenerating but unregulated over-harvesting has caused it to be threatened to near extinction. The current research describes a protocol of micro propagation of this important medicinal plant from establishment to hardening in field conditions. Multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from mature explants on Murashige and Skoogs (1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.25 mg L-1 kinetin (KN), 0.5 mg L-1 ascorbic acid and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Optimal rooting (86.6%) and growth of microshoots were observed on a medium containing 0.25 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 2 % (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully grown in soil.
Sadeghi Pour Marvi Mahdi
Department of Soil and Water Research, Varamin Agricultural Research Center, Ghodosi Blvd. Varamin, 3371616738, Iran.
Abstract: Modern fertilization recommendation must optimize crop yield and quality and minimize chances of negative environmental effects due to over fertilization. Data from fertilizer studies can be fitted to several mathematical models to determine optimum fertilizer rates, but resulting recommendations can vary depending on the model chosen. In this research, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as a case study vegetable crop to compare models for estimating fertilizer N requirements. Field studies were conducted to measure yield response to applied N. The area was located at 25?21' E longitude and 51?38' N latitude in the North of Varamin city, (Tehran province, Iran) in the alluvial plain of Varamin. Soil family was fine, mixed, active, thermic, typic haplocambids based on Soil Taxonomic system (USDA, 1999). Plants were grown in Central Research Station of Varamin and received five rates of N (0, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1) as a urea in split applications. Data for plant fresh mass and N uptake were recorded. Logistic, linear-plateau and quadratic models were compared for the field data. The logistic model described the data for cultivar quite well, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 and above. Coefficients for the linear-plateau model were derived from the logistic model. All three models for lettuce production were compared graphically and analytically. The model coefficients were used to make improved estimates of fertilizer recommendations for field production of lettuce.
Liliana Marban, Lidia Giuffre, Marta Riat, Romina Romaniuk and Ernesto Giardina
Ingeis-Conicet Pabellon Ingeis. Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Av. San Martin 4453 (1417), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract: The effect of conventional fertilization was compared with a vermicompost that was mixed with substrate for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in a greenhouse experiment. The study was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Eight treatments were compared: a control treatment of a substrate mixture (T0: with no vermicompost added), five treatments with increasing percentages of vermicompost added to the substrate mixture (H1 to H5), and two treatments using two application rates of a chemical fertilizer (F1 and F2). Both fertilizer and vermicompost presented very low levels of heavy metals, which assured agronomical suitability. Vermicompost from SS-MSW (Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste) and slaughterhouse sludge, presented significant value as soil conditioner and biofertilizer and produced increased levels of C and N (P<0.05). The phosphorus addition by vermicompost was high, with a decrease of zinc absorption by plants and potential contamination risk. Mixtures including more than 50% of the vermicompost and the highest rate of fertilizer showed statistically significant differences for dry weight, leaf length, plant survival and P-Zn antagonism (P<0.05).
Abstract: Delayed flowering of chrysanthemum under high temperature conditions is a serious obstacle for all year round cut chrysanthemum flower production in southern temperate and subtropical zones. To clarify the causes of flowering delay in spray chrysanthemum, two different genotypes of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium)were grown under high-temperature conditions: summer-to-autumn flowering type (SA type, high temperature tolerant) and autumn flowering type (A type, high temperature sensitive). Their flower-bud initiation and development were subsequently compared. Results clarify that two independent events caused by high temperatures occur in the shoot apex of spray chrysanthemum under short-day conditions. First, high temperatures slowed floral development in inflorescence, thereby increasing the number of florets in both SA and A chrysanthemum genotypes. Secondly, high temperatures slowed the developmental speed of inflorescence after the budding stage, and the time to reach the bud break stage was prolonged, thereby delaying flowering, especially in A chrysanthemum genotypes.
F. Nazoori, A. Talaie and A. Javanshah
Rafnajan's Payam Nor University; Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran; Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan-Iran.
Abstract: Effects of different chilling periods were evaluated on growth and development of floral buds of male seedling trees (Pistacia.vera L.) for chilling requirements of male genotypes helpful in predicting overlapping of flowering with female trees and escape from spring cold damage. The chilling requirement and responses of male genotypes to chilling treatment were determined by applying eight levels of chilling to shoots (i.e. 600-1300 h) at 3?1 oC. Based on the effect of chilling hours on bud break on four male pistachio genotypes were grouped to early (P1 and P6) and late flowering (P7 and P10) types. Percentage and rate of bud break, duration of flowering, growth and development of bud (length and width) were evaluated. The results indicated that genotypes had different chilling requirement. Among the male pistachio genotypes, the adequate chilling hours (bud break >80%) for P1, P6, P7 and P10 genotypes were 800, 700, 1100, and 1300 hours, respectively. P1 and P6 had low chilling requirement (700 hours) for 50% bud break compared to P7 and P10 (900 and 800 hours). Increased chilling led to decreased heat unit requirements for sprouting, resulting in greater overall growth and development. Chilling was a determining factor in floral bud break for all the genotypes, increasing chilling also produced greater bud break percentages. All genotypes required fewer heat units for bud break as chilling increased. Increasing the chilling hours also increased the length and width of flower buds and reduced duration of flowering.