Abstract: The performance of 24 ber (Z. mauritiana) in terms of growth, yield and yield components were studied under the tarai conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 1998-99. Sanaur 6 recorded the highest tree height (5.75 cm) and spread (11.90 m), trunk girth (2.13 m), cross trunk sectional area (3616.08 cm2) and volume (1698.39 m3). Rohtak Gola, Seo, Nazuk, Narikeli and Sanaur 2 recorded the highest shoot length (248 cm), number of leaves per shoot (515.50), leaf length (10.68 cm), length:breadth ratio (2.32) and photosynthetic efficiency (0.182 mg/cm2/h), respectively. Sanaur 3 recorded the highest leaf breadth (7.71 cm) and area (43.19 cm2); ZG3 recorded the highest number of fruits per shoot (50.50) and per tree (11665.50), and yield (214.40 kg); and ZG 2 recorded the highest yield efficiency by weight (0.215 kg/cm2) and number of fruits per m3 volume of tree (59.05).
Mandal, A B; Aparna Maiti; Elanchezhian, R
Plant Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, Andamans, India.
Abstract: Axillary buds from crown of mature fruits, slips and suckers of pineapple cv. Queen cultured in MS medium supplemented with high auxin:cytokin ratio and then transferred to MS medium with high cytokinin:auxin ratio showed high establishment percentage. Shoot multiplication increased upon subculture on freshly prepared MS medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA). The best multiplication medium was an MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg BA/litre, 2 mg NAA and IBA/litre and 10% coconut water. In vitro grown shootlets were successfully rooted in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg NAA and IBA/litre. The highest number of buds produced in 6 months was obtained from shaken liquid medium. Pulsing of explants enhanced the culture response as indicated by higher shoot multiplication rate in all types of explants.
Santosh Kumar; Ranjan Srivastava
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: Bud take, growth and flowering were evaluated in Rosa indica [R. chinensis] cultivars Odorata and Briar, R. macrophylla and R. clinophylla budded with cultivars Super Star, Happiness, Eiffel Tower and Kiss of Fire. Bud take at 2 weeks after budding was greatest for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star (80%). R. macrophylla budded with Eiffel Tower recorded the lowest number of days to sprouting (21.33 days). R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star produced the tallest plants (37.67 cm) at 6 months after budding. However, at 15 months after budding, the tallest plants were obtained with R. clinophylla budded with Kiss of Fire (119.67 cm) and R. indica cv. Briar budded with Kiss of Fire (119.33 cm). At 6 months after budding, the greatest plant spread was recorded for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Happiness (55.63 cm) and R. indica budded with Happiness (54.67 cm). Super Star budded on R. indica cv. Odorata produced vigorous plants. At 15 months after budding, R. indica cv. Briar budded with Ha
Arora, N K; Channana, Y R; Raghbir Singh; Kaundal, G S
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Abstract: The effects thinning at different crop growth stages (at pink bud stage, at full bloom, at fruit set, and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of fruit set) on the fruit size, colour and yield of peach cv. Flordaprince were determined in a field experiment conducted in Ludhiana, Punjab, India during 1998-99. The fruit length, breadth and yield of peach were highest when thinning was carried out during the pink bud stage. Data are presented on the effects of thinning n the colour of the fruits.
Ram Kumar; Shailendra Rajan; Negi, S S; Yadava, L P
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, PO Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance for yield and yield components of 14 early maturing grape genotypes were studied. The differences among the genotypes were highly significant (p=0.05) for all the characters (except bunch length) studied. A wide range of variation was recorded for bunch width, number of berry per bunch, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight, juice content, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, organic acid content and berry yield. Based on the coefficient of variation, broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance, it can be concluded that berry yield, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight and organic acid content provides a greater scope for selection of superior genotypes. Among the 14 genotypes, Flame seedless produced the highest (17.6 t/h) berry yield; Cardinal registered highest (275.6 g) 100-berry weight with high (6.5 g) 100-seed weight; and Pusa Navrang showed highest organic acid content and 100-seed weight (6.7 g). The
Karam, F; Mounzer, O; Sarkis, F; Lahoud, R
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Department of Irrigation and Agro-Meteorology, Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287 Zahle, Lebanon.
Key words: ammonium nitrate, crop yield, dry matter accumulation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, leaf area index, lettuces, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, use efficiency
Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine the effects of irrigation on the yield and nitrogen recovery of field grown lettuce in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon under non-limiting soil N conditions. Within the experimental plots, irrigation differentiation was made upon crop evapotranspiration (ETc) measured on a non-weighing lysimeter of 16 m2. The treatments included a control, I-100, irrigated at 100% of ETc, and two water deficit treatments, I-80 and I-60, irrigated at 80 and 60% of ETc, respectively. Prior to planting, all plots received fertilizers broadcast at a rate of 250 kg/ha of NPK-fertilizer (17%). At 6- and 12-leaf stages, ammonium nitrate (34.5%) was applied with irrigation water in two applications of 125 kg/ha each. Local groundwater containing 10 mg N-NO3/litre was used for irrigation. Yield was determined in a final destructive harvest. Crop evapotranspiration reached on the lysimeter a total of 433 mm for a total growing period of 70 days. Water stress caused by the deficit irrigations significantly
Mohsen Hanana; Moncef Harrabi; Mohamed Boussaid
Laboratoire de Genetique et Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis (INAT), 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.
Abstract: Within the framework of genetic improvement of Tunisian Snake-melon (Cucumis melo) cultivar by biotechnological methods, we have developed a method to regenerate whole plants by in vitro culture using cotyledon and hypocotyl as explants on MS medium with different combinations and concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Adventitious buds were initiated from hypocotyls grown on medium with 1.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 0.5 mg benzyladenine/litre. A maximum percentage of embryogenesis (20%) was obtained for cotyledons grown in MS medium containing 0.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 1 mg kinetin/litre. For stimulating the development of adventitious buds and the embryo's germination and their conversion into plants, MS medium diluted twenty times and supplemented with 1.5% sucrose was used. Histological studies showed that adventitious buds were initiated from the peripheral zones of the organogenic calluses by aggregation of meristematic cell masses which organized into a typical shoot meristem. Embryoids resulted from the divisio
Yadav, V K; Singh, H K
Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj) - 224 229, Faizabad (UP), India.
Abstract: The effects of preharvest spraying of 1% calcium nitrate, 0.1% Topsin-M and 0.1% Bayleton, alone or in combination on aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA-6 were determined. The treatments were sprayed 10 and 20 days before harvest. Treatment with 1% calcium + 0.1% Bayleton resulted in increased total soluble solids (8.4%), total sugars (6.93%) and total phenol (13.3%), and reduced levels of losses in acidity (8.8%), ascorbic acid (22.32%) and reducing sugars (12.8%). The treatment also prolonged the shelf-life of fruits up to 20 days compared to 10 days in control. Thus, this treatment doubled the shelf-life of aonla fruit in storage at ambient temperatures.
Singh, K P; Ramchandran
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The effects of the number of days between flowering and corm harvesting on the performance of crops produced from harvested corms were studied in Hessaraghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Corms of gladiolus cv. Pink Friendship were harvested at 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 or 135 days after flowering (DAF). Plants grown from corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were the tallest (94.13 and 94.9 cm). Harvesting of corms at 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 DAF resulted in the greatest number of leaves per plant (8.78, 8,83, 8.65, 8.29 and 8.46) and leaf breadth (3.40, 3.63, 3.43, 3.33 and 3.48 cm). Scape width was greatest in plants produced from corms harvested at 45 (2.99 cm), 60 (3.08 cm) and 75 DAF (2.85 cm). Harvesting of corms at 60 DAF resulted in the greatest floret diameter (12.92 cm), spike length (86.26 cm), rachis length (45.99 cm), and number of florets per spike (13.87), and in the lowest incidence of corm rot (23.78%). Corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were superior in terms vegetative growth, flower productio
Joshi, N C; Srivastava, B K
Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: The performance of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia cv. Jaunpuri Local) grown by direct sowing or transplanting at 15 January, 29 January, 12 February, 26 February or 12 March was evaluated in Pantnagar, Uttaranchal, India during the spring-summer season of 2000. Seeds sown directly in the open field on 15 and 29 January failed to germinate. For the other dates, seed germination was observed at 15.0 to 19.3 days after sowing. Main shoot length, number of branches arising from the main shoot, and internode length increased with the delay in transplanting. Greater shoot length was obtained under transplanting. The diameter of the main shoot decreased with the delay in direct sowing or transplanting. Flower emergence was earliest with transplanting on 26 February. In general, pistillate flowers emerged at 5-15 days after the emergence of staminate flowers. The formation of flowers on the lower nodes was more pronounced under transplanting. The lowest male flower position was obtained with transplanting on 12 Ma
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Shailendra Rajan; Bhriguvanshi, S R
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The effects of foliar application of urea (10, 20, 25 and 30%) as the main source of N on the growth and leaf N composition of the guava cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were determined in a field experiment conducted in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Urea-N, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in the shoot and fruits were highest with the single application of 30% urea and double application of 20% urea in Allahabad Safeda and Sardar, respectively. Crop yield in both cultivars decreased with increasing urea concentration during the rainy season. Fruit weight, total soluble solids, and ascorbic acid and reducing sugar content were highest with foliar spraying of 25% urea on Allahabad Safeda and decreased with increasing urea concentration in Sardar.
Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S K; Suchitra
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: The effects of pulsing with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide and wet cool storage (4 degrees C) for 1-5 days on the postharvest life and quality of rose cultivars Noblesse and Mercedes were determined. The vase life of both rose cultivars subjected to pulsing and wet cool storage was higher compared to that of the control. In general, water uptake and flower diameter of the cut flowers subjected to pulsing and wet cool storage decreased with storage duration, but were higher compared to those of the control.
Dhiraj Vyas; Sharma, A D; Sharma, S K; Sharma, D R
Department of Biotechnology, University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni-Solan - 173 230, H.P., India.
Abstract: Leaf isoenzyme patterns were studied in Juglans nigra and 8 cultivars of J. regia (ACO, Blackmore, Gobind, Hartley, KX Giant, Lake English, Payne and Tutle) for their identification in the field. The results showed differences in specific relative mobility values for the various isoenzymes in walnut cultivars. Of the 6 enzyme systems that were localized on native gels, only esterase and malate dehydrogenase showed wide diversity in Rm values for the different isoenzymes. A total of 16 loci and 24 alleles were observed for 5 enzyme systems, out of which 10 loci were polymorphic. J. nigra was found to be more heterozygous and polymorphic than J. regia. PPO I, PRO I and EST III were found as reliable markers for distinguishing the two species of walnut. The values obtained for similarity coefficient were used to make the dendrogram. Among the cultivars of J. regia, the most diverse relationship was found between Tutle and Blackmore, whereas Blackmore and Payne were the most genetically related.
Manna, S; Mathew, B; Hasan, M A; Chattopadhyay, P K
Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal - 741 252, India.
Abstract: The performance of 15-year-old palms of 7 cultivars (Local Tall, Laccadive Micro, West Coast Tall, Straight Settlement Green, Philippines Ordinary, Andaman Ordinary and Laccadive Ordinary) and 3 hybrids (Malayan Dwarf Yellow x West Coast Tall, Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall, and West Coast Tall x Malayan Dwarf Orange) of coconut grown in West Bengal, India was evaluated. Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall, West Coast Tall x Malayan Dwarf Orange, and West Coast Tall recorded high annual nut yields. Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall had the highest number of spadix per plant (9.2), number of female flowers per spadix (102.0), and annual nut yield (161.9 nuts per plant). Principal component analysis revealed 3 sets of characters influencing yield: number of spikelets with female flowers, number of spikelets per spadix, and number of nuts per spadix (for which Local Tall was superior); number of female flowers per spadix and number of female flowers per spikelet (Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast
Joubert, F J; Plessis, M H du; Steenkamp, E D; Stassen, P J C
ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa.
Key words: branches, canopy, crop density, grapefruits, high density planting, lemons, mandarins, oranges, plant training, pruning
Abstract: Results of a study on the response of Valencia orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit cultivar/rootstock combinations to training systems (central leader system for high-density planting and multiple leader system for low-density planting), pruning methods (trees cut back to 50 cm height after planting and trained with new growth; trees shaped after planting without cutting back; trees shaped after 1 year of growth), and planting densities (3.0x1.0, 4.0x1.25, 4.0x1.5, 5.0x2.0 and 5.0x3.0 m, corresponding to 2222, 2000, 1667, 1000 or 667 trees/ha) are presented. The experiment was conducted in Nelspruit (Valencia orange and lemon), Lydenburg (mandarin) and Malelane (grapefruit), South Africa during 1996 and 1997. Pruning back a newly established tree to 50 cm height after planting had negative effects on tree volume and development compared to the other pruning methods. Lemon trees were trained more successfully under the central leader system. Higher levels of manipulation and pruning were necessary when lemo
Nagar, B L; Dashora, L K; Yadava, L P
Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India.
Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet radiation (for 0, 5 or 10 minutes), benzylaminopurine [benzyladenine] (BAP; 0, 50 or 100 ppm), and vapour gard (antitranspirant concentrate; 0 or 4%), singly or in combination, on the quality of C. aurantiifolia fruits stored at room temperature (20.0-28.5 degrees C) were studied. Fruit quality parameters were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 days after treatment. All the treatments resulted in lower physiological weight loss and decay, and greater diameter and juice content during storage compared with the control. The lowest reduction in physiological weight (5.32%) was obtained with ultraviolet radiation for 5 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard. Fruits treated with ultraviolet radiation for 5 or 10 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard did not exhibit rotting during storage. This treatment also recorded the lowest reduction in fruit diameter (4.67%). Treatment with ultraviolet radiation for 10 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard also gave the lowest reduction in juice
Vastrad, N V; Sulikeri, G S; Hegde, R V
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India.
Abstract: The yield and yield components of ginger cv. Bidar local under normal (open) and reduced (shaded) light conditions, and 5 fertilizer treatments (recommended fertilizer rate (RFR) of 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha; 75% RFR + 25% vermicompost; 50% RFR + 50% vermicompost; 25% RFR + 75% vermicompost; and 100% vermicompost at 8 t/ha) were studied in Dharwad, Karnataka, India during 1998/99. Reduced light condition (by 40-50%) was obtained by growing dwarf castor bean cv. Aruna as an intercrop at a spacing of 90x30 cm. The average fresh rhizome yield (11.54 t/ha) and cured rhizome yield (3.64 t/ha) were higher under normal light conditions than under reduced light conditions (6.40 and 1.58 t/ha, respectively). Among the fertilizer treatments, 100% RFR recorded the highest average fresh rhizome yield (10.21 t/ha). The application of 75% RFR + 25% vermicompost resulted in an average fresh rhizome yield (9.16 t/ha) which was almost as high. The effect of the interaction between light intensity and vermicompost on fresh rhizome y
Humayun, M; Babu, R S
Department of Horticulture, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhara Pradesh, India.
Abstract: The period of fruit bud differentiation (FBD) in mango cultivars AU-Rumani, Neeleshan, Neeluddin, Baneshan, Bangalora and Neelam grown in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India was studied during 1998 and 1999. In general, FBD commenced on the 3rd week of September and was completed on the 3rd week of November. However, the onset of FBD and peaks of differentiation varied among the cultivars. The first sign of FBD (stage II) was observed in AU-Rumani on the 3rd week of September, and 100% differentiation was observed towards the end of October. In Neeleshan and Baneshan, stage II was observed on the 4th week of September, and 100% differentiation was evident towards the 2nd week of November. In Neeluddin, Bangalora and Neelum, stage II occurred during the 1st week of October, and 100% differentiation was evident on the 2nd and 3rd weeks of November. In general, the total carbohydrate fraction and C/N ratio were greatest at 100% FBD, whereas the total N fraction was lowest during FBD. At FBD, the total carbohydrate f
Tiznado Hernandez, M E; Ojeda Contreras, A J; Sanchez Estrada, A; Moreno Velazquez, D; Mercado Ruiz, J N
Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos de Origen Vegetal, Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, Apartado Postal 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
Abstract: A model for the prediction of fruit development stage in Stenocereus thurberi [Lemaireocereus thurberi] was developed. Fruits were sampled from a field in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, in June and July 1999 and 2000, at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 40 days after anthesis (DAA). A Minolta chromameter CR-300 set was used to quantify fruit skin and pulp colour. A multiple linear model was developed using the stepwise procedure in forward selection. F statistics, mean square error, coefficient of determination, Mallows coefficient, and distribution of residuals around zero were used as indicators of the efficiency of model prediction. The results indicated the possibility of predicting the fruiting stage in S. thurberi in terms of DAA based on fruit pulp and skin characters.
Hazarika, B N; Parthasarathy, V A
Biotechnology Laboratory, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam - 793 103, Meghalaya, India.
Key words: 8 hydroxyquinoline, acclimatization, antitranspirants, chemical composition, daminozide, humidity, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, mandarins, micropropagation, plant composition, roots, shoots, silica gel, survival, tissue culture, water content
Abstract: Microshoots approximately 2.0-2.5 cm long obtained from in vitro cultures of C. reticulata, C. nobilis x C. deliciosa, C. volkameriana and C. reshni were subjected to reduced humidity treatment with silica gel (8 mg), alar [daminozide] (1 or 2 mg/litre) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (1 or 2 mg/litre). After 4 weeks, the plants were transferred to polyethylene bags containing soil and farmyard manure at 1:1. Plant survival was evaluated after 1 week. The application of silica gel adversely affected ex vitro survival. The values of shoot and root growth parameters were lowest under silica gel treatment and highest under the control. Alar and 8-hydroxyquinoline enhanced most of the root and shoot growth parameters. Plant weight was greatest in C. nobilis x C. deliciosa (293.53 mg) and lowest in C. reshni (280.45 mg). Shoot length ranged from 2.8 cm in C. reshni to 3.2 cm in C. reticulata and C. volkameriana. Leaf weight was greatest (30.46 mg) in C. volkameriana. The application of 2 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline/litre was eff
Mini, C; Vahab, M A
College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Trissure, Kerala - 680 654, India.
Abstract: Correlation and path analyses for oleoresin yield and yield components were conducted for C. annuum (CA 653, Arka Lohit, Ujwala and KTPL-19), C. chinense (CA 640 and CA 645), C. frutescens (CA 671 and CA 648) and C. baccatum (CA 670) cultivars grown in Kerala, India during the summer (January-March), rainy (May-July) and winter (September-November) seasons [year not given]. Genetic correlation analysis revealed that oleoresin yield was positively correlated with number of fruits per plant, and negatively associated with number of days to fruit set, flowering and harvesting. The number of days to flowering was positively associated with number of days to first fruit set and first harvest, and fruit yield per plant. The number of days to fruit set had a significant and positive association with number of days to first harvest and negative association with number of fruits per plant. The number of days to harvesting was negatively associated with number of fruits and fruit yield per plant. Path analysis indicate
Naresh Babu; Anamika Sharma
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani - 797 106, India.
Abstract: Plant height and fruit characteristics were evaluated during 1998/99 and 1999/2000 in 12 pawpaw cultivars (Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Delicious, Pusa Giant, Pusa Majesty, Coorg Honey Dew and Honey Dew) grown in Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. Plant height (243.300 cm), and fruit length (38.840 cm), width (43.800 cm) and weight (2445.780 g) were greatest in Pusa Giant. Pusa Delicious recorded the greatest fruit set (55.400%), number of fruits per plant (31.100), and fruit pulp/peel ratio (11.100) and total soluble solids content (14.08%). Peel percentage was lowest in Co-4 (6.560%). Pusa Majesty fruits had the highest seed percentage (0.970%). Fruit yield was highest in Coorg Honey Dew (41.070 kg per plant). Fruit total carotenoids content was highest in Pusa Dwarf (7.730 mg/100 g). Honey Dew fruits were characterized by the greatest total sugar (12.450%), reducing sugar (11.570%) and nonreducing sugar (0.880%) contents, acidity (0.100%), and sugar/acid ratio (124.500). Co-5 fruits had t
Porwal, R; Nagda, C L; Pundir, J P S
Datepalm Research Centre, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract: The effects of pruning height (10, 20 or 30 cm) and growth retardants (cycocel [chlormequat] and maleic hydrazide at 2000, 4000 or 8000 ppm) on the performance of R. damascena were studied in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India during 1993/94. The growth retardants were sprayed after sprouting (when 4-5 leaves were fully developed on shoots) and at 15 days thereafter. Plant height, plant spread, and number of shoots per plant decreased with the increase in growth retardant concentration and decrease in pruning height (i.e. increase in pruning intensity). The effect of the interaction between pruning and growth retardant on vegetative parameters was not significant except on plant spread, which was greatest (1.15 m2) with a pruning height of 30 cm and 2000 ppm cycocel. Flower yield per plant and per hectare, and oil content were also significantly affected by pruning and growth retardant. The interaction between pruning and growth retardant was also significant except on oil content. The greatest flower yield per plant
Dipendra Gogoi; Gautam, B P
Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India.
Abstract: Fifty-two chilli (C. annuum and C. frutescens) genotypes (cultivars and advanced breeding lines) grown in Jorhat, Assam, India were evaluated for fruit yield and component characters from February to October 1999. The genotypes significantly varied for all the parameters evaluated. Plant height was greatest in Asamia Jalakia (71.21 cm). The number of primary branches was highest in Nadharia (7.83) and Kala J. Long (7.83). Balijuri (190.67), Nadharia (202.83) and Kala J. Long (198.50) had the highest number of leaves per plant. Specific leaf weight was highest in Balijuri (6.62 mg/cm2). The number of days to first flowering was lowest in Soalkuchi (51.83). Khoti Jalakia had the highest number of flowers (662.67) and fruits (278.17) per plant, and fruiting percentage (42.00%). Fruit drop incidence was lowest in Singhasan (0.90%). Jayanti recorded the greatest fruit length (9.71 cm). Fruit diameter was greatest in Tupura Jalakia (1.83 cm), Thupuka Jalakia (1.81 cm) and Bogori Jalakia (1.64 cm). The greatest fres
Chandel, J S; Ananda, S A
Department of Pomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, HP, India.
Abstract: The effects of budding method (annular, chip, Forkert or patch budding) and date (15th or 30th day of May, June, July or August) on bud take success in pecan cv. Mahan were studied in Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India during 1995/96. Bud take success was evaluated at 3 months after budding, whereas linear and radial growth were evaluated during the dormant season (at 1 1/2 years after budding). The highest mean percentage of bud take was obtained with annular budding (47.39%) and 30 June (55.92%), and their interaction (82.54%). Patch budding performed on 30 June (73.78%) and 15 July (70.61%) also resulted in high bud take success. The greatest mean linear and radial growth were obtained with annular (124.6 and 7.88 cm) and patch (121.1 7.74 cm) budding, and budding on 15 May (135.3 and 8.47 cm), 30 May (131.3 and 8.16 cm) and 30 June (131.5 and 8.18 cm). In terms of interaction effect, annular budding on 30 June recorded the greatest linear (145.8 cm) and radial (9.04 cm) growth.
Mahajan, B V C; Dhillon, B S
Punjab Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur - 143 521, Punjab, India.
Key words: chemical composition, fruit pulp, fruit set, fruiting, fruits, maturity, plant composition, seed weight, seeds, titratable acidity
Abstract: Fruit development was studied in 25-year-old litchi (Litchi chinensis cv. Calcuttia) trees grown in Gurdaspur, Punjab, India. Observations on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits were recorded from 20 to 60 days after fruit set (DAFS). Fruit size (length and diameter) increased until harvesting. The greatest fruit length (3.9 cm) and diameter (2.9 cm) were recorded at 55 DAFS. Fruit weight rapidly increased up to 40 DAFS, after which fruit weight gradually increased until harvesting. Pulp and seed weight significantly increased up to 55 DAFS. Pulp weight increased slowly up to 30 DAFS, increased at a faster pace at the second phase, then increased very slowly towards the end of sampling. On the other hand, seed weight increased dramatically at the first phase (35 DAFS), then gradually increased thereafter. The content of total soluble solids (TSS) increased until harvest, with the increase being much faster up to 40 DAFS. TSS ranged from 9.0 to 18.3 degrees Brix. A gradual decline in titratable a
Ghosh, S N; Mathew, B
Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Abstract: The response of Z. mauritiana cultivars Baranasi Karaka, Chhuhara, Dandan, Gola, Ilayachi, Jogia, Kaithali, Katha Phal and Umran to topworking was studied. Scion buds collected from Jhargram, West Bengal, India were topworked on 5-year-old trees of Z. rotundifolia. At 2 months after budding, budding success was 100% in Baranasi Karaka and Kaithali, and 80% in Dandan, Jogia, Katha Phal and Umran. Gola had the highest number of leaves (116). Scion height (155 cm) and girth (10.0 cm) were greatest in Umran. Jogia recorded the highest fruit yield per plant at 7 months after budding (62.1 kg), as well as the highest number of fruits per plant (1600). Fruit weight was highest in Umran (39.2 g). Fruit length and weight were more pronounced in Baranasi Karaka (5.4 and 3.4 cm), Dandan (5.1 and 3.0 cm), Jogia (4.9 and 3.8 cm) and Umran (4.8 and 3.8 cm). Seed weight was lowest (0.6 g) in Ilayachi and highest (1.9 g) in Jogia. Ilayachi fruits registered the greatest total soluble solids (21.8 degrees Brix), total sugar (
Tiwari, A K; Ranvir Singh
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: The effects of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (HQC), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), CoSO4 and Al2(SO4)3 at 200 ppm each, incorporated into the vase solution containing 4% sugar and 200 ppm citric acid, on the vase life of rose cv. Superstar were studied. Weight gain was greatest on the 3rd day in HQC (3.75 g) and CoSO4 (3.70 g) solutions, and lowest in distilled water (2.00 g). Weight loss at senescence was greatest in flowers kept in distilled water (1.99 g), HQ (1.85 g) and HQC (1.75 g) solutions, and lowest in flowers maintained in Al2(SO4)3 solution (1.50 g). The antimicrobial agents were equally effective in enhancing flower diameter. The greatest uptake of solution was observed in flowers kept in HQC (24.0 ml) and CoSO4 (23.0 ml) solutions, whereas the lowest was observed in flowers maintained in distilled water (14.00 ml). Flowers in HQC and CoSO4 solutions had the longest vase lives (15.20 and 14.56 days, respectively). Flowers kept in distilled water had the shortest vase life (10.00 days). HQ and Al2(SO4)3 ha
Rajesh Kumar; Ananda, S A
Department of Pomology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.), India.
Abstract: The effects of propagation method (tongue grafting, chip budding, shield budding and annular budding) and grafting height (15, 20 or 25 cm from the collar region) on the performance of apple cultivars Wellspur and Redspur as scions and crab apple as rootstock were studied. Tongue grafting and chip budding were conducted in March, whereas shield and annular budding were conducted in summer. Tongue grafting resulted in the greatest linear and radial growth of scion and rootstock. The linear growth of scion was significantly affected by the grafting height in Redspur, while the radial growth of scion and rootstock was significantly affected by grafting height in both cultivars. In Redspur, the linear and radial growth of the scion was greatest with 15 and 25 cm grafting height, respectively. In Wellspur, the linear and radial growth of the scion and rootstock was greatest with a grafting height of 15 cm. The method of propagation significantly affected the number of feathers in both cultivars. The distance betwe
Singh, K P; Mandhar, S C
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The performance of 9 exotic cultivars of gerbera (G. jamesonii) (Diablo, Lyonella, Ornella, Sunset, Tara, Thalassa and Tiramisu, Twiggy and Whitsun) was studied under fan and pad cooled greenhouse environments at the Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India from July 1998 to June 1999. The greatest plant height (48.83 cm), and number of suckers (5.16) and leaves (46.27) per plant were obtained with Tiramisu, Lyonella and Ornella, respectively, while the lowest values of the aforementioned parameters were recorded for Whitsun (47.88 cm), Sunset (3.82) and Tiramisu (26.74), respectively. Flowering was earliest (47.88 and 57.47 days for 50 and 100% flowering, respectively) in Whitsun and latest (83.10 and 88.30 days) in Tiramisu. The greatest diameter of flower (10.70 cm) and length of flower stalk (58.27 cm) were recorded for Tiramisu and Lyonella, respectively. The thickest (0.70 cm diameter) and heaviest (22.20 g) flower stalks were observed in Twiggy, whereas the thinnest (0.60
Ram Kumar; Shailendra Rajan; Negi, S S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, P.O. Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The yield and quality of 14 early-ripening grape cultivars, planted during 1995 in Rehmankhera, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, were evaluated during 1997-2000 to identify the most suitable cultivars for North Indian plains, where pre-monsoon showers is a limiting factor for grape cultivation. The period of bud sprouting and ripening varied with the year and cultivar. Bud sprouting (20 February-5 March) and fruit ripening (16 May-5 June) were earliest in Beauty Seedless. BA x Per-75-32, Gold, Delight and Kishmish Beli exhibited late fruit ripening. Flame Seedless and Pusa Navrang were high-yielding, and the mean annual yield of these cultivars was approximately 20 kg per vine. Both cultivars, which were resilient to damage by heavy rains, exhibited phenotypic yield stability even under unfavourable conditions. Cardinal (5.40-8.61 kg per vine), Kishmish Charani (4.69-12.66 kg per vine), Beauty Seedless (1.13-22.63 kg per vine), Pusa Seedless (5.02-7.13 kg per vine), Gold (1.36-8.88 kg per vine) and New Perlette
Yercan, M; Engindeniz, S
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: crop yield, dried fruit, figs, fruit growing, production costs, production economics, profitability, profits
Abstract: The economics of dried fig production in selected villages of Izmir province, Turkey, was analysed based on data from 52 producers. Dried fig yield was calculated at 186 kg per decar (1 decar=1000m2). Production cost was found to be 80.3 million TL/decar, while the net profit was 36.9 million TL/decar.