Abstract: The methods of off-season longan production in Thailand are presented: (1) application of potassium chlorate (as soil drench, foliar spray, and trunk or stem injection) and sodium chlorate to regulate flowering, and (2) cultivation of non-seasonal flowering cultivars. The physiological responses of longan to potassium chlorate and orchard management practices are briefly discussed.
Reddy, Y T N; Kurian, R M
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore 560 089, India.
Abstract: The leaf nutrient status of twelve ungrafted polyembryonic mango cultivars (Bappakai, Chandrakaran, Kensington, Muvandan, Mylepelian, Nekkare, EC 95862, Olour, Kitchner, Kurukan, Vellaikulumban, and Starch), and that of cv. 'Alphonso' grafted onto seven of the aforementioned cultivars, was determined to generate preliminary information on the role of rootstocks in mango nutrition. All seedlings and grafted plants were thirteen years old, growing in a compact block with uniform cultural practices. Differences among polyembryonic seedlings were highly significant for N, P, K, Ca, and Mn, and significant for Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe. 'Alphonso' scion growing on the polyembryonic rootstocks revealed highly significant differences for N, significant differences for Ca and Fe, and non-significant differences for P, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents in leaves. Vigorous rootstocks, viz., Muvandan, Bappakai, and Olour, resulted in higher leaf nitrogen concentration of 'Alphonso' scion while the least vigorous rootstock viz., V
Orta, A H; Akcay, M E; Erdem, T
Department of Farm Structure and Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Tekirda Agriculture, University of Trakya, 59030 - Tekirda, Turkey.
Abstract: This study was conducted in Turkey in 1997 and 1999 to investigate the effects of different irrigation methods and regimes on the vegetative growth of "Starking Delicious" apple trees under Thrace conditions. Drip and surface (ponding) irrigation methods were the basic treatments while the allowable depletion levels of soil moisture (40% and 70% of available water holding capacity) in 120 cm soil depth were sub treatments. Seasonal evapotranspiration and total amount of irrigation water in drip irrigation plots were lower than those of surface irrigation plots (62.7% and 72.5%, respectively). However, the effect of irrigation regimes on vegetative growth parameters was nonsignificant. Drip irrigation gave better results than surface irrigation when irrigation water requirements, evapotranspiration, and vegetative growth parameters were evaluated together. In conclusion, it can be suggested that drip irrigation should be preferred for apple trees under Thrace conditions and irrigation water should be applied w
Pradeep Kumar; Singh, H K
Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229 (U.P.), India.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98 at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, with aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cultivars NA-7 and Kanchan to determine the effective fungicides against aonla rust (caused by Ravenelia emblicae). Pooled data revealed that all tested fungicides, except tridemorph, reduced the rust percent disease index (PDI; 0.69-16.83 and 1.17-14.04) over the control (25.45 and 17.65) in NA-7 and Kanchan, respectively. Indofil M-45 (mancozeb; 0.3%) applied thrice during September-October was most effective (0.69 and 1.17 PDI; 97.37 and 93.22 percent disease control or PDC), followed by Baycor (bitertanol; 3.22 and 6.34 PDI; 84.79 and 67.46 PDC) and Blitox-50 (copper oxychloride; 3.55 and 7.13 PDI; 84.69 and 62.22 PDC). Improvement in fruit size was also recorded for these fungicides. Tridemorph showed toxic effects by causing heavy premature fruit drop. NA-7 was most sensitive as there were less healthy fruits left for recording the yield.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: cost benefit analysis, crop production, cucumbers, economic viability, organic farming, production costs, production economics, protected cultivation, returns
Abstract: The costs and returns of organic cucumber production in a 12x32 m greenhouse in Menderes, Turkey were determined, and a production budget was developed for growers. Total costs of organic, greenhouse cucumber production were determined to be 1334 dollars. Net return per square metre was 0.98 dollar and net return per kilogram was 0.07 dollar.
Sirohi, P S; Behera, T K
Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: Twenty-eight C. moschata F1 hybrids involving 8 genotypes as parents (Pusa Vishwas, S-107-B, S-124-10, NDPK-24, S-15, S-12, S-20, and S-17) in half diallel fashion were evaluated to study the gene action of yield and its contributing characters. Dominant gene action was observed for all the characters, viz. vine length, fruit maturity, fruits per plant, fruit weight, and yield per plant. In all these characters, dominance component of variance was greater than the additive component of variance. The heritability in narrow sense was found to be less than 0.50 for the majority of characters. Low narrow sense of heritability coupled with higher degree of non-additive gene action (dominance variance) in yield and its components suggested that heterosis breeding might be advantageous for obtaining higher gains in pumpkin.
Fageria, M S; Dhaka, R S; Mahesh Agrawal
Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329 (Rajasthan), India.
Abstract: The effects of harvesting date (Gandora [green stage], Doka [early stage of fruit development], and Dang [late stage of fruit development]) on 8 P. dactylifera cultivars (Jagool, Khadrawi, Medjool, Shamran, Halawy, Barhee, Khunezi, and Khalsa) were investigated. The harvesting stage influenced fruit weight, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), organoleptic rating, and spoilage percentage. The weight of fruits in all eight cultivars increased up to Doka stage and then slightly decreased at Dang stage. The TSS in all cultivars increased from Gandora to Dang stage whereas acidity decreased. This study revealed that for raw consumption of dates as well as for its better keeping quality, fruits should be harvested at the Doka stage. As positive correlation was observed between TSS and organoleptic rating. It is suggested that TSS may be considered as an index of maturity of dates.
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C; Reena, N A
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore - 89, India.
Abstract: Nineteen pawpaw cultivars were evaluated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, for fruit quality. Pusa Nanha, a dwarf mutant, flowered at the 19th node; Thailand, Pusa Dwarf, and Tainung also bore fruits at a lower height. Fruit weight (2140 g), volume (1940 ml), and breadth (16 cm) were greatest in Pant Papaya 2. Red Indian (25.3 cm) and Thailand (24.2 cm) had the longest fruits. Tainung 1 and Red Indian produced sweet fruits with total soluble sugar (TSS) of 13.2 and 13.0 degrees Brix, respectively. The total carotenoids content was highest in Sunrise Solo (5031 I.U.%). Nigeria and Papaya Pant 2 had the thickest fruit pulp (3.0 cm). Fruit cavity index was lowest in Tainung 1 (13%). Mauritius, Pink Flesh Sweet, Red Indian, Sunrise Solo, Tainung 1, Tainung 2, and Thailand had pink pulp. Surya, produced from crossing Sunrise Solo with Pink Flesh Sweet, was evaluated, along with the parental cultivars, for plant and fruit quality. Surya had the lowest plant height at first flowering as well as the greatest girth and
Singh, N K; Saxena, R P; Jaiswal, R C; Pradeep Kumar
Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, India.
Abstract: The efficacy of fungicidal seed treatments (soaking seeds for 12 h in aqueous solution of 0.1% Bavistin [carbendazim], 0.2% Vitavax [carboxin], 0.2% Baycor [bitertanol], 0.2% thiram, 0.2% Dithane M-45 [mancozeb], and 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax) and foliar sprays (0.2% Dithane M-45, 0.2% Baycor, 0.3% Blitox-50, and 0.5% boric acid) on early blight (caused by Alternaria solani) incidence and tomato cv. Pusa Ruby yield was investigated in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Seeds treated with fungicides were sown in the nursery. Fungicide spraying was conducted thrice (i.e. at the time of disease appearance and twice thereafter at 15-day interval) under field conditions. The initial disease appearance in seed-treated plants was observed at 60-69 days after sowing (DAS). The lowest percent disease index and highest percent disease control (PDC) at 177 DAS were recorded for 0.1% Bavistin, 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax, 0.2% thiram, and 0.2% Vitavax. The highest average fruit yield (357.46 q/ha) was obtained with 0.2% Bay
Singh, K P
Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The influence of 9 grades of mother planting material on the vegetative growth, flowering, and multiplication of gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.) cv. 'Aarti' was studied. The largest size grade (>6.00 to <6.50 cm diameter) produced significantly higher number of leaves per plant, girth of scape, number of florets per spike, and weight and diameter of corm. The greater height of plant, length of spike and rachis, and number of flower spike per plant were produced by corm size of (>5.10 to <6.00 cm diameter). Number 1 (>3.80 to <5.10 cm diameter) corm grade produced maximum diameter of second floret and number of cormels per plant. Number 2 corm grade (>3.20 to <3.80 cm diameter) produced higher number of cormels per plant and their corresponding weight. One hundred percent of corms flowered up to No.3 grade; flowering percentage was reduced as corm size decreased. The highest percentage of propagation coefficient was obtained with No. 6 grade corm.
Pramanick, K K; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P
IARI Regional Station (Horticulture), Amartara Cottage, Shimla - 171 004, India.
Abstract: The effects of low black polyethylene tunnels on the performance of 35 strawberry cultivars were investigated at Shimla, India, during 1996-98. Covering beds with black polyethylene hastened flowering by approximately 1 month, prevented soil erosion, reduced weed growth and winter injury, and increased total yields by 20%. Weeding was not required in mulched beds. During summers, the replacement of plastic sheets with anti-hail or anti-bird nets increased the yields and improved fruit quality. Variation in cultivar performance was also observed. Under uncovered conditions, Shimla Delicious gave the highest number of fruits per plant (30) while Etna and Belrubi the highest yield per plant (243.80 and 213.20 q/ha).
Monga, P K; Josan, J S
Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar - 152 116, India.
Abstract: The effect of the foliar application of zinc, alone and in combination with Fe and Mn (as zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, and ferrous sulfate, respectively) on leaf composition, fruit yield, and quality of Kinnow mandarin was studied at Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar, Punjab, India. Micronutrient sprays increased the concentration of respective micronutrient without affecting the level of N, P, and K in the leaves. However, the increase in Zn content was more when spraying of Zn was conducted alone rather than in combination with Fe and Mn. Fruit yield, juice content, and total soluble solids were maximum under zinc sulfate (0.3%) treatment. Acidity decreased in all treatments compared to the control.
Singh, D B; Attri, B L
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.
Abstract: West Indian cherry (Malpighia galbra [M. glabra]), a rich source of vitamin C [ascorbic acid], has a problem in propagation through seeds. Indole butyric acid (IBA) at 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm was tried in hard and semi-hard wood cuttings for vegetative propagation. After 90 days, maximum survival (90%), number of leaves (25.0), number of primary branches (6.60), and number of secondary branches (6.60) were recorded in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. Similarly, the maximum number of primary roots (9.37), number of secondary roots (16.37), length of primary roots (22.04 cm), and length of secondary roots (15.10 cm) were observed in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. The hard wood cuttings treated with 1500 ppm IBA were most successful for the vegetative propagation of West Indian cherry.
Leon, D M; Ortega, D A; Cabrera, H; Cruz, J de la; Parkin, K L; Garcia, H S
UNIDA, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Apdo. Postal 1420, Veracruz, Ver. 91860, Mexico.
Abstract: Manila mangoes were infested in the tree by allowing fertile Anastrepha obliqua female flies to oviposit on fruits contained inside cages. Infested mangoes were exposed to nine different controlled atmospheres (CA) containing combinations of 1, 3, or 5% O2 and 30, 50, or 70% CO2. Surviving larvae were enumerated after subjecting the mangoes to CA for 1 to 5 days. Selected compositional and physical parameters (weight loss, pH, titratable acidity, colour, soluble solids, reducing sugars, and texture) were analysed during post-treatment ripening. Fully ripened fruits were also subject to sensory evaluation using a non-structured hedonic scale and a trained panel. CA containing 1% O2 and either 30 or 50% CO2 effectively killed all larvae present in treated fruits. These treatments did not alter the composition or sensory characteristics of fully ripened mangoes. However, losses of 20 to 25% of fruits on the basis of sensory acceptability were attributed to the development of "spongy" tissue. CAs containing 70% C
Mohammed, M; Brathwaite, R A I
Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Abstract: Studies on the sensitivity to chilling injury (CI) of 8 processing and 8 non-processing tomato cultivars stored at the table-ripe stage were examined. Fruits were stored for 21 days at 7 degrees C and upon transfer to 20 degrees C for 1 or 3 days, respectively. The low correlation coefficient between pitting and decay suggested that these two early manifestations of CI are not significantly related. The least sensitive tomato cultivars to CI were Advantage, Dorado, and Rio Grande among the processing types and Star Pak and Walters of the non-processing types. The least tolerant to CI were processing cultivars Caraibe and Cascade and non-processing cultivars Early Set, Carnival, and Capitan. The observed tolerance of table-ripe tomatoes after 21 days at 7 degrees C plus 3 days at 20 degrees C compared to control fruit stored continuously at 20 degrees C for only 8-11 days indicates that a longer marketing period could be obtained at temperatures lower than those currently recommended.
Dris, R; Niskanen, R; El Assi, N
Department of Applied Biology, Horticulture, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, Finland.
Abstract: 'Lobo' apple fruits were subjected to preharvest CaCl2 spraying treatment, pre-storage heat treatment, and CaCl2+heat treatment and were held at 2 degrees C and 90-95% RH for six months. Respiration and ethylene production rates were monitored and soluble solids, juice pH, firmness, total dry matter and macronutrient (P, K, Ca, Mg, and N) contents were determined. Additionally, the incidence of physiological disorder and pathological disease were recorded. Respiration and ethylene production rates slightly decreased in heat-treated apples and increased in CaCl2-treated apples. CaCl2 treatment did not increase fruit firmness or Ca concentration. Combined CaCl2+heat treatment and heat treatment increased pH. At the beginning of storage, the firmness of heat- and CaCl2+heat-treated fruits was lower but greater than that of the control fruits at the end of the storage period. After 6 months of storage, the lowest incidence of disorder and disease symptoms was observed in the CaCl2+heat treatment.
Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S
Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.
Key words: 2,4,5 T, abscisic acid, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, pawpaws, somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryos, tissue culture
Abstract: A protocol for high frequency somatic embryogenesis in C. papaya was developed using immature zygotic embryo explant of cultivars Honey Dew and CO 2. Somatic embryos were induced in immature embryos, cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/litre of 2,4,5-T, and incubated in the dark for a period of 3-6 weeks. Loosely attached globular somatic embryos appeared from apical domes within 3-6 weeks of incubation. The development of somatic embryos was asynchronous, which passed through globular, heart, and torpedo shape stages. Embryos continued to proliferate with regular subculture and remained morphologically competent for up to one year. Maturation of the embryos was achieved in medium supplemented with ABA [abscisic acid] (0.1 mg/litre). The cotyledonary stage embryos germinated (71.33% in Honey Dew and 59.33% in CO 2) on phytohormone free MS basal medium. Regenerated plantlets were established in the greenhouse and hardened plants were transferred in soil.
Arava Bhagwan; Reddy, Y N; Rao, P V; Mohankumar, K C
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 003, India.
Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, and benzyladenine at two levels of concentration on the days to ripening, shelf life, and various physicochemical properties was studied. Benzyladenine at 50 ppm improved the shelf life to 42 days, followed by benzyladenine at 25 ppm (37 days) and sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm (35 days), compared to the control (26 days). Physiological weight loss increased throughout the storage period while sugars, total soluble solids (TSS), and acidity increased up to the 14th day and then declined in the control and treated fruits. Treatments that improved the shelf life maintained better fruit quality in terms of higher reducing sugars, TSS, and acidity. Peak ethylene production reached the 14th (7.43 nl g-1 h-1) day in benzyladenine at 50 ppm and on the 11th day (6.75 nl g-1 h-1) in sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm when compared to the 11th day (8.15 nl g-1 h-1) in the control. The reduced and delayed peak ethylene production in benzyladenine- and sodium
Neeru Sood; Ranjan Srivastava; Singh, O S; Gosal, S S
Biotechnology Center, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Abstract: The rate of strawberry propagation through conventional technique is quite low and it is difficult to maintain plant material during the summer months. In the present investigation, the protocol for tissue culture propagation has been further improved by using liquid medium with four layers of surgical bandage. Fifteen milliliters of liquid Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] and Kinetin was used for the study. The proliferating shoots were longer, thicker, and borne with broader leaves in liquid medium. Studies on the survival of such plants were also conducted. The survival rate on various substrates varied from 66.67% in soil to 76.67% in soilrite mix. Seventy percent of plantlets transferred on sand survived well.
Meghwal, P R; Sharma, H C; Singh, S K
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, IARI, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: A method was standardized for the quick establishment of aseptic cultures in guava from mature field-grown stock plants for micropropagation through enhanced axillary branching technique. The maximum number of aseptic explants with shoot proliferation was obtained by a combination of surface sterilizing agents involving hydrogen peroxide (10%), silver nitrate (0.25%), and mercuric chloride (0.05%) treatment of explants one by one for five, six, and three minutes, respectively. The problem of phenolic browning was also minimized to a great extent by leaching of phenolic compounds due to agitation in antioxidant solution as well as by proper drying of explant prior to inoculation.
Singh, I P; Parthasarathy, V A; Handique, P J
Biotechnology Laboratory, Division of Horticulture, ICAR Res. Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793 103, India.
Abstract: In vitro-grown microshoots of Assam lemon (C. limon) and Sweet lime "sour mutant" (C. limettioides) were pulsed for one minute with paclobutrazol solutions at 5 levels (0, 1000, 2500, 5000, and 7500 ppm) under laminar flow followed by inoculation in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) Medium. Observations on shoot length, root length, number of leaves, length of internode, root diameter, shoot weight, root weight, and plant weight were recorded after five weeks of culture initiation. Increased concentration of paclobutrazol suppressed the root length and increased the root diameter of both species. However, there was no response on shoot growth. Paclobutrazol-treated plants showed better survival at the nursery stage than control.
Vishal Nath; Bhargava, R
National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner 334 006 (Rajasthan), India.
Abstract: The flowering of Z. mauritiana cultivars (Gola, Kaithali, Banarsi Kadaka, Umran, Mundia, and Seb) at six locations in India (Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh; Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat; and Jobner, Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Hisar, Rajasthan) was studied. Irrespective of cultivar, flowering was completed by 5 September at Anantpur, while it continued up to 29 November at Hisar. In Rajasthan, flowering duration was, approximately, from 24 July to 10 November. The peak of flowering was observed between 17 June and 30 August in southern India and from 27 August to 22 October in northern India. Flowering was generally dependent on temperature and relative humidity, particularly on the variation between maximum and minimum temperature. A maximum temperature of 32.4-36.9 degrees C and a minimum temperature of 20.7-25.3 degrees C, along with a temperature difference of 8.6-13.3 degrees C and morning relative humidity of 70.6-82.5%, prevailing continuously for a minimum of 1 month induced profuse flowering in all cultivars acro
Joubert, F J; Plessis, M H du; Stassen, P J C
ARC, Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa.
Abstract: In this study different pruning methods were applied to higher density orange (cv. Navel), grapefruit (cv. Star Ruby) and orange (cv. Valencia) orchards (in South Africa, in 1996-99), which had become overcrowded five to six years after planting. A progressive decline in yield and fruit size was experienced with these orchards. Response to the different pruning actions, as well as yield variation and fruit size was assessed over three successive seasons. Corrective (severe) pruning and hedging resulted in a significant reduction in yield in the 1st year after pruning, but with an increase in fruit size. However, yield and fruit size improved substantially in the 2nd and 3rd year after the severe pruning. Light hedging as a maintenance pruning action was effective in restricting tree size without adversely affecting yield. Alternate bearing was substantially reduced by annual pruning. By creating a slanted, 20 degrees angle canopy with mechanical hedging and selective pruning, a greater portion of fruit is bor
Tovar, B; Ibarra, L I; Garcia, H S; Mata, M
Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, Apdo. Postal 634, Tepic, Nay. 63000, Mexico.
Abstract: Kent mango slices at two different stages of ripening: 4 days (S1) and 6 days (S2) after harvest were kept under aseptic conditions at 13 and 23 degrees C to determine if normal ripening could proceed after slicing. Whole mangoes stored at 23 degrees C and 65% RH were used as control. Soluble solids of slices from all treatments did not show the same trend as whole fruits and remained unchanged at their initial values. Titratable acidity increased and pH decreased in all the slices and were in turn, different from the control fruit. Colour parameters indicated loss of yellow pigments and browning. Decay occurred between days 5 and 7 of storage in slices that were stored at 23 degrees C. Slices from S1 mangoes kept at 13 degrees C suffered minimal changes due to cutting; however, the slices did not show the same compositional changes as the naturally-ripened whole fruit.
Allong, R; Wickham, L D; Majeed Mohammed
Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Key words: ascorbic acid, brix, carbon dioxide, crop quality, cultivars, ethylene, fruits, growth, hot water treatment, pawpaws, sensory evaluation, storage, storage decay, tastes, temperature
Abstract: The effects of hot water treatments and storage conditions on quality of fresh-cut papaya were investigated. A hot water treatment of 48-50 degrees C for 20 minutes was found to delay fungal storage rots in fruits of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars without negatively affecting sensory quality. Fresh-cut slices from fruit of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars were stored at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C and evaluated for changes in physical, chemical and microbial quality over eight days. There was a decline in sensory quality and acceptability of Red Lady papaya slices after four days at both temperatures, while fresh-cut Tainung #2 fruit held at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C was found to have high sensory quality and acceptability up to six days of storage. A storage temperature of 5 degrees C was more effective than 10 degrees C in reducing CO2 and ethylene accumulation, as well as suppressing microbial growth, while maintaining high sensory quality in fresh-cut papaya slices. Unacceptable microbial counts w
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.
Abstract: An attempt was made to evaluate sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars based on their fruit characteristics. Twenty-two cultivars, viz. Badam, Badami, Bombay, Calcutta Round, CO1, CO2, Cricket Ball, Dwarapudi, Guruvayya, Gavaraiah, Pilipatti, Gutti, Hybrid, Jhumakiya, Kirtibarti (big), Kirtibarti (long), Krishna Rao, Mohangooti, Oval, Pakala Oval, Seedless and Vavilvalasa, were studied under Bangalore (Karnataka, India) conditions. Fruit weight was maximum in Krishna Rao and least in Pilipatti. The length of the fruit was maximum in CO1. Fruit breadth was maximum in Cricket Ball. Total soluble solid was highest in Kirtibarti (big) and Pakala Oval. The average number of seeds per fruit was least in Guruvayya, Gavaraiah and Pakala Oval. The study indicates that considerable variability exists in the cultivars and there is good scope for breeding varieties for dwarfness or reduced vigour.
Saroj, P L; Tomar, D S; Arora, Y K
Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun (UP) - 248 195, India.
Abstract: The investigation revealed that peach orchard can be raised successfully even on degraded land by adopting site specific agrotechnique. The porous profile with only 60 cm top soil depth (T3) favoured better vegetative vigour of peach plants as compared to those sites having soil only throughout the profile (T4 and T5). The drip system of irrigation had good response on plant survival but overall plant vigour was not influenced much in juvenile peach plants compared to rain fed control under humid subtropical climate. Introduction of urd (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. T-9) in kharif and toria (Brassica campestris [B. campestris var. toria] cv. Pant-303) in rabi season was a compatible combination with peach plantation but growing of annual crops particularly rabi season crop was uneconomical on highly gravely sites (80% gravels distributed throughout profiles-T2). The yield of groundstorey crops were affected by rainfall distribution pattern during crop growing period coupled with canopy cover of the overstorey compo
Asamenew, M T; Narayanaswamy, P
Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Key words: adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, callus, culture media, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, kinetin, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture
Abstract: Callus cultures were initiated from the shoot tip explants of aseptically grown C. forskohlii. A rapid initiation and proliferation of callus was obtained in MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 1.5 BAP [benzyladenine] mg/l. Adventitious shoots (17.33) were obtained from compact greenish callus on passage to MS basal medium containing various concentrations and combination of IAA and kinetin. But, the best response was in the medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 2.0 mg kinetin/l. On further subculturing of individual shoots onto hormone-free MS medium, shoots developed into normal plantlets.
Srivastava, R K; Sandhu, A S; Neeru Sood
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Key words: benzyladenine, callus, culture media, cytokinins, epicotyls, explants, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, limes, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture
Abstract: Callus was induced from different explants of in vitro raised seedlings of C. aurantifolia to study the response of explants and medium composition on frequency of callusing and to develop reliable protocol for high frequency of plant regeneration from callus cultures. Shoot tip, epicotyl and hypocotyl were found superior explants for callusing in terms of amount of callusing, days to callus and callus induction frequency. Addition of cytokinin was found indispensable for regeneration and MS medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] (5 mg/l) resulted in highest per cent of callus regeneration. Regenerants were rooted in vitro and hardened in plastic pots containing autoclaved soil.
Singh, D B; Suryanarayana, M A; Attri, B L
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.
Key words: ascorbic acid, chemical composition, cultivars, plant composition, postharvest physiology, reducing sugars, ripening, sapodillas, storage, storage life
Abstract: Various chemical changes were studied during ripening of four sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars, viz. Cricket Ball, Ever Bearer, Bangalore Giant and Calcutta Round, at ambient temperature (25-30 degrees C) and relative humidity of 70-90%. Significant changes during storage were recorded in physico-chemical constituents of all the cultivars studied. The ripening process started first in Ever Bearer and its total soluble solid contents, total sugars, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid accumulation declined after 4 days. All the cultivars had a storage life of 6 days whereas Ever Bearer could only be stored for 2 days at ambient temperature.
C-67, Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar, Allahabad - 211 016, India.
Abstract: Studies were undertaken on the flowering biology and bearing behaviour of hog-plum (Spondais pinnata [Spondias pinnata]). Well-established trees of hog-plum varieties 'oval' and 'round', growing within the premises of Government Gardens, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, were used. The studies were conducted with special reference to the variety 'oval'. The trees bore pure panicles at the terminal end of last years growth. The flowering took place on naked shoots with the advent of the spring season. Flowers opened during odd hours and anthers dehisced with the opening of flowers. The structure and shape of the inflorescence were similar to mango. Flowers were observed as hermaphrodites numbering 1829.4 per panicle. Pollen grains were dusty. The initial percentage set under natural open pollination was very good (71.29%) compared to very nominal set in mango. Thirty-five fruits per panicle reached final maturity.
Shukla, A K; Pathak, R K; Tiwari, R P; Vishal Nath
N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) 224 229, India.
Abstract: In a field experiment conducted in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-96, the effect of irrigation and mulching on growth of aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA 7 was investigated. The treatment comprised 3 irrigations (daily drip irrigation, alternate day drip irrigation and conventional surface irrigation by basin method) and different types of mulching materials, i.e. 200 guage black polyethylene, 8-cm thick farmyard manure (FYM), paddy straw, grass, and unmulched control. Plant height, canopy spread and stock girth were significantly better under alternate day drip irrigation over conventional method. Among mulching treatments, black polyethylene was the most effective mulch material however, among organic mulches paddy straw was the best for the same parameters. Leaf nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) was maximum in alternate day drip irrigation and minimum under conventional method. Among mulching treatments, the maximum P, K, Ca and Mg values were found in FYM whereas,
Dag, A; Gazit, S
The Kennedy-Leigh Centre for Horticultural Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
Abstract: Effective insect pollination is essential for good fruit set and yield in mango (Mangifera indica). Insects visiting mango bloom were collected for 3 years (1994-96) in 10 commercial orchards located in all major mango-growing areas in Israel. Forty-six distinct species or types (not identified to the species level) were found; most belonged to the orders Diptera (26), Hymenoptera (12) and Coleoptera (6). The following species played a significant role in mango pollination in most orchards: two blow flies (Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata); the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the housefly (Musca domestica). Found in only one or two orchards, in medium to large numbers, were: the hover fly Episyrphus balfeatus, the wasp Bembecinus tridens, and two beetles, Cantharis atropoveolatus and Omophlus syriacus. The effectiveness of 12 pollinators was assessed in one orchard. Blow flies were found to be as effective as the honeybee, whereas the housefly was less so. Yield of small caged 'Keitt' mango trees was min
Kishun, R; Rajan, S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: Nineteen X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae strains collected from different ecogeographical areas/mango genotypes of India were studied to confirm the existence of variability in the strains on the basis of their pathogenicity on genotypes (9), reaction towards antibiotics (9) and growth on culture media (5). Study revealed the existence of variability in Xcmi strains as exhibited by their differential reaction. The similarity in Xcmi strains was observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Clustering pattern on these three detection methods indicated that the grouping of strains is not entirely based on their geographical distribution as the strains from northern and southern parts of India falls in a single cluster. However, the strains collected from Bihar exhibited more similarity with each other and clustered in one or nearby cluster in all the detection methods used.
Divender Gupta; Ranjeet Bhatia
Regional Horticultural Research Station, Jachh (Nurpur) - 176 201, India.
Abstract: The fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata) population was monitored with the help of bottle traps containing 100 ml aqueous solution of 0.1% methyl eugenol and 0.25% malathion per trap, in mango and guava orchards of submountainous region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The maximum catch of 98.6 and 62.6 males/trap for mixed population was recorded during 30th and 27th standard weeks in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in mango orchard. The corresponding catch in guava orchard was 427.2 and 517.0 during the 37th and 39th standard weeks. There was a significant positive correlation between the trap catch and maximum and minimum temperatures during both the years for both the hosts. The maximum catch coincided with the ripening period of fruits.
Arora, P K; Sharma, J N; Thind, S K; Monga, P K
Regional Fruit Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Abohar - 152 116, India.
Abstract: Some 8, 18, 3, 9, 5, 7, 3 and 7 cultivars of sweet oranges, mandarins, limes, lemons, grapefruits, trifoliates [Poncirus trifoliata], tangelos and other related species (such as C. taiwanica) were evaluated for resistance to citrus leafminer (P. citrella) under field conditions at Abohar, Punjab, India, during 1995-97. None of the citrus species was found to be free from leafminer infestation. Two cultivars of sweet orange (Campbell Valencia and Heavy Sweet), 1 of mandarin (Kara), 1 of lime (Sweet lime), 1 of lemon (Galgal), 4 of grapefruits (Davis, Marsh Prolific, Redblush and Star Ruby), 6 of trifoliates (Carrizo, Citrumelo, Pomeroy, Rubidoux, Sacaton Citrumelo and Savage) and 1 of related species (Sadaphal) were found to be least susceptible to leafminer, while 3 cultivars of mandarin (Italian mandarin, Kondanarum and Willow Leaf), 1 of lime (Kagzi lime), 1 of lemon (Jullundhiri Khatti) and 2 of related species (Box orange and Karna Khatta) were found highly susceptible.
Pankaj Srivastava; Srivastava, B K; Singh, M P
Department of Vegetable Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, India.
Abstract: Four planting methods, i.e. flat planting, flat planting-earthing up, ridge planting and raised bed double row planting, were tested to study the performance of early cauliflower cv. Pant Gobhi-2 grown during rainy season under Tarai conditions of Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. The cauliflower seedling of 40 days age were planted at 60x45 cm spacing. Earthing up operation was done after one month of transplanting (27 July 1995). The results indicated that the mortality of seedling was significantly lesser in ridge planting compared to flat planting at all the stages of plant growth. The ridge planting resulted in healthy and early plant growth compared to other methods and also showed earliness in curd maturity besides giving higher net curd yield.
Singh, K P; Sangama
Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The effect of seven plant spacing, viz. 30x30, 30x20, 30x10, 20x20, 20x12.5, 20x10 and 20x8.5 cm, on vegetative growth, flowering and postharvest quality of cut spikes in tuberose cv. 'Single' was investigated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, during 1997-98. Wider spacing resulted in longer rachis and heavier individual florets. Closer spacing produced higher yield of cut flower and loose flower per plot basis. Wider and closer spacing have vice versa effect on above floral parameters. Rest of the studied parameters namely, plant height, number of leaves per clump, spike length, diameter of second floret, flowering duration under field condition and number of florets per spike and their corresponding weight and postharvest quality of cut flower were not influenced significantly by the plant densities.
Janakiram, T; Rao, T M; Bhatt, R M
Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: Plant growth, dry matter accumulation and its partitioning to different plant parts were studied in two cultivars of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) and three cultivars of French marigold (Tagetes patula). The cultivars of both African and French types differed significantly in dry matter production. In the African type, Golden Age recorded higher dry matter, while in the French type the maximum dry matter was accumulated by the Harvest Moon cultivar. The difference in the total yield is attributed to the variation in the growth components.
Dahiya, P S; Saraswat, S P
Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla - 171 001, H.P., India.
Abstract: Analysis of the marketing of apples in Himachal Pradesh, India, shows that despite the price support for apples announced since 1981, the marketing system is riddled with myriad problems. Farmers had marketing margins of 41% in 1984-85 and 42% in 1995-96. It is suggested that multipronged strategies should be explored for the future development of horticultural crops in the state in order to achieve better returns for the growers.
Murti, G S R; Upreti, K K; Kurien, R M; Reddy, Y T N
Plant Hormones Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.
Abstract: Changes in the levels of endogenous hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (t-zeatin riboside (t-ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR)) in xylem sap and leaves and indole acetic acid (IAA) and total phenols in the leaves were determined in seven polyembryonic mango cultivars (Bappakai, Chandrakaran, Furukan, Muvandan, Mylepelian, Olour and Vellaikolamban), which are commonly used as rootstocks. Simultaneously morphological characters were recorded on mango cv. Alphonso of similar age raised on these cultivars as rootstocks to examine whether the hormones and phenols produced by these bear any relationship to the growth and development of scion. Also the stem anatomical features of the shoots of current and previous year growth were studied in Alphonso grafted on two rootstocks imparting contrasting effects on shoot vigour. The morphological attributes such as tree girth and tree volume of Alphonso were generally higher on rootstocks Muvandan, Bappakai and Olour and least on Vellaikolamban followed by Kuruk
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, PO Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: Logistic, Gompertz and Richards functions were used for examining their suitability in fitting growth data of malformed and normal mango panicles. The functional analysis of data indicated that Richards function was a suitable model for summarizing panicle growth data. The model was found to be superior to logistic and Gompertz because of its greater flexibility. The study revealed that Richards function can be successfully used for simulating panicle growth under different treatments and conditions.
Junthasri, R; Nartvaranant, P; Subhadrabandhu, S; Tongumpai, P
Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
Abstract: The technique in producing off-season mango has been adopted in Thailand since 1986. Paclobutrazol, a plant growth retardant, was used in combination with thiourea for producing as well as breaking of flower buds. The studies on application methods showed that soil drenching of paclobutrazol is more effective for the induction of flowering in mango as compared to foliar spray. The rate of paclobutrazol application depended on the size of tree canopy as well as on mango cultivars. For most cultivars, the rate of paclobutrazol applied is generally determined by multiplying the diameter of tree canopy (expressed in meter) with 1.0-1.5 g of active ingredients of paclobutrazol. At 120 days after the application of paclobutrazol, 0.5% thiourea is usually sprayed to some cultivars for breaking of buds. Using this method, inflorescences are visible within 2.5 to 4 months after the paclobutrazol application depending on cultivar. However, the success in producing off-season mango is also dependent on other factors suc