Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Technology, Pantnagar 263145, U.P., India.
Key words: cultural methods, trickle irrigation, surface irrigation, crop yield, cabbages, irrigation, methodology, spacing, use efficiency, water use, water use efficiency, plant water relations, vegetables
Abstract: The water use efficiencies of cabbages (cv. Golden Acre) irrigated via microsprinkler, drip [trickle], microtube or surface irrigation methods were determined in India. Cabbages were planted at a spacing of 0.5 x 0.6 m. The highest yield was obtained in the microsprinkler irrigation treatment (40.23 t/ha), followed by drip irrigation (38.97 t/ha), surface irrigation (33.76 t/ha) and microtube irrigation (32.54 t/ha). Water use efficiency was highest for drip irrigation, followed by microtube irrigation, microsprinkler irrigation and surface irrigation. Compared with surface irrigation, percentage water savings were 61.44, 59.28 and 36.82% for microtube, drip and microsprinkler methods, respectively.
Matoria, G R; Khandelwal, R C
Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur 313001, India.
Abstract: Combining ability and stability analysis for six traits was performed in 45 bitter gourd hybrids derived from a 10 x 10 diallel analysis. The analysis revealed that both additive as well as non-additive gene action were important for all the characters. However, non-additive gene action was predominant for all the traits, except for girth of fruits and number of seeds/fruits. BG-14 was observed to be the best general combiner for yield/vine and most of the other quantitative traits. Among the crosses, Udaipur Local x BG-14 and NBPGR/TCR-727 x Jaunpuri Long showed the highest SCA effects as well as stability in their performance making them suitable for a heterosis breeding programme.
Chandra, R; Sheo Govind; Desai, A R
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani, Meghalaya 793 103, India.
Abstract: Performance of twenty-five genotypes was studied at Barapani for three consecutive years. Among the 19 characters studied, weight of primary finger rhizome recorded the highest level of variability (38.94%) followed by number of primary and secondary finger rhizomes per clump. Plant height, length of leaf, and length, diameter and weight of primary finger rhizome, internodal distance of primary finger rhizome, and rhizome yield per hectare were significantly and positively associated with fresh rhizome yield per clump. A negative correlation between dry rhizome recovery and fresh rhizome yield per clump was observed. PCT 13, PCT 11, GL Puram and PCT 15 showed no significant differences and had higher yields, indicating their suitability for cultivation under mid hill conditions of Meghalaya. Lakadong had poor yields but had the highest curcumin (7.33%) content.
Mishra, H P
Department of Floriculture & Landscaping, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar 848125, India.
Abstract: The effect of planting date (February-May) on growth and flowering of P. tuberosa was investigated during 1995-97 in Bihar, India. Early and late planting produced plants with poor flower and spike yields. Planting bulbs on 7 March followed by 22 March produced plants with a high number of long leaves/clump, thick and big spikes, and a high number of florets and spikes/unit area.
Dwivedi, S K; Padmanabh Dwivedi
School of Environmental Sciences, B.B. Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226 025, India.
Abstract: A review of guava wilt (caused by Fusarium solani, F. longipes, F. moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi], F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia sp.) in India is given. A brief account of the economic importance of guava is followed by the occurrence and symptoms of the disease. The modes of infection, causal organisms, and environmental and chemical factors that guide the development of the disease have also been emphasised. The recent findings made to control the disease severity, including those by chemical and biological methods and soil solarization, are also reviewed.
Abstract: The effect of 3 temperature regimes (31/25 (warm), 25/19 (moderate) and 19/13 degrees C (cool), day/night) on flowering and pollination in 4 mango cultivars (Haden, Irwin, Keitt and Local) was investigated in Taiwan. Compared with the moderate treatment, warm temperatures hastened growth rates of panicles and flowers, shortened flowering duration and life span of individual flowers, and decreased the number of hermaphrodite and male flowers. Warm temperatures increased the rates and percentages of anther dehiscence and pollination. In contrast, cool temperatures retarded the growth of panicles and flowers, extended flowering duration and life span of flowers, and increased the number of hermaphrodite and male flowers. Sex ratio was statistically not different among the 3 temperature treatments. The highest number of hermaphrodite flowers occurred during the first third of the flowering period. The highest number of male flowers occurred halfway through the flowering period.
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, U.P., India.
Abstract: Studies were conducted on alternate bearer mango cv. Dashehari. Dashehari produced a major vegetative flush in March-April followed by 2 minor flushes in June-July and September-October. The major vegetative flush fruited, whereas the other 2 minor flushes did not. Shoots which fruited rarely produced a new vegetative flush soon after crop harvest and also did not flower and fruit in the following season. To promote vigour and productivity, such shoots were forced to produce vegetative growth soon after crop harvest by pruning and application of 1-2% urea. Such treatments failed to induce flowering and fruiting. The concentrations of endogenous growth regulators were determined in shoots. Shoot-tips contained 3 auxins, 8 gibberellins, 11 cytokinins, 11 steroids and an ABA-like inhibitor. High concentrations of auxins, inhibitors, cytokinins and steroids were observed in shoot-tips just prior to or during the period of flower bud differentiation, whereas low concentrations of gibberellins were observed. Gibber
Baghel, B S; Pandey, S K; Nema, B K
Department of Pomology and Fruit Preservation, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur 482004, India.
Key words: flowering, mangoes, flowers, light, cultural methods, sex, plastic film, covers, plant development, abnormal development, fruit crops, fruits
Abstract: The effect of coloured poly-covers (control, white, red, green, blue and yellow) on flowering of mango (cv. Sunderja) was studied during October 1996 to February 1997. Covering twigs with coloured poly-covers influenced flowering. The highest rates of flowering shoots, healthy panicles and hermaphrodite flowers, the longest panicles, and the highest numbers of branchlets/panicle and flowers/panicle were recorded in the red poly-cover treatment. This treatment was better than the control, white and yellow poly-cover treatments, but was at par with the other treatments. The lowest rate of floral malformation, the lowest incidence of male flowers and the lowest ratio of hermaphrodite to male flowers (1:3.05) were also observed in the red poly-cover treatment.
Singh, S K; Syamal, M M
Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
Abstract: A micropropagation method for roses cv. Sonia is presented. Shoot proliferation was best (70.3%) on MS [Murashige and Skoog] medium supplemented with BAP [benzyladenine] at 2 mg/litre + NAA at 0.1 mg/litre + GA3 at 0.01 mg/litre, with a proliferation of >5 microshoots per subculture. Efficient rooting was achieved on half-strength MS medium supplemented with IBA at 0.2 mg/litre + NAA at 0.1 mg/litre. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized for 3 weeks and planted out under field conditions with a survival of over 70%.
Sonali Dixit; Srivastava, D K
Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP, India.
Key words: cauliflowers, callus, cotyledons, explants, in vitro regeneration, kanamycin, in vitro selection, vegetables, biotechnology
Abstract: Kanamycin sensitivity studies were conducted to study the resistance level of kanamycin in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, cv. Pusa Snow Ball). Increasing doses of kanamycin (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/litre) were given to hypocotyl and cotyledon explants to determine a minimum concentration of kanamycin required for selection of putative transformed cells during transformation. Decreases in fresh weight in both cotyledon and hypocotyl tissues were observed with increasing in kanamycin concentration. Even 50 mg/litre kanamycin did not completely inhibit the growth but callus formation and shoot regeneration was affected. It is suggested that at least 20-30 mg/litre kanamycin would be necessary to select resistant transformants in callus and shoot cultures.
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Rajan, S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow 227107, India.
Abstract: Complete removal of leaves, along with decapitation of shoots, promoted flower bud differentiation (FBD), while ringing with partial or complete defoliation along with decapitation of shoots did not promote FBD. Decapitation of leafy shoots also promoted FBD, increasing from 44 to 63% and 37 to 54% in Sardar and Allahabad Safeda, respectively. Defoliation of same age shoots (1-3 months old) at different times of the year influenced FBD. In many cases, defoliation did not promote flowering compared with controls. Principal component analysis revealed that the time of shoot emergence was the decisive factor for FBD in 1-, 2- and 3-month-old shoots. Defoliated shoots put forth terminal extension or axillary growth, while in undefoliated ones only terminal growth took place. There is a strong indication that in guava, leaves play a favourable role in flower bud formation.
Yadav, I S; Dinesh, M R
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Abstract: Nine mango [Mangifera indica] genotypes having dwarf stature were compared to the control Alphonso for morphological and fruit characteristics, in order to identify those with potential for use in breeding programmes. Varieties Kerala Dwarf and Janardhan Pasand were the most suitable for usage as donor parents.
Singh, I S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, V
N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, U.P., India.
Key words: fruits, germplasm, tropical tree fruits, chemical composition, quality, genetic improvement, fruit crops, plant genetic resources
Abstract: A survey of bael (Aegle marmelos), jamun (Syzygiumcumini), mahua (Bassia latifolia [Madhuca longifolia]), lasora (Cordia myxa), wood apple (Feronia limonia [Limonia acidissima]), monkey jack (Artocarpus lakoocha [A. lakucha]) and karonda (Carissa carandas) growing regions, particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh, was conducted to examine the variability in existing germplasm for selection of desirable genotypes. Information was recorded on fruit physical and chemical characteristics, and much variability was observed. Some desirable traits were identified.