Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year 2018

2018 |2017 |2016 |2015 |2014 |2013 |2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2007 |2006 |2005 |2004 |2003 |2002 |2001 |2000 |1999 |
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, and Michael J. Kieser

Professor and Director of Pomology and Viticulture Program, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University of I Lane, Parma, ID 83660, U.S.A. 2Research Associate of Pomology and Viticulture Program, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University ofI Lane, Parma, ID 83660, U.S.A.

Key words: Alternative fruit, berry size, cool region grape, crop load, grape adaptation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 11-14.

Abstract: Cluster management in table grapes is an essential cultural practice for production of high quality table grapes and this practice has not been studied in the Intermountain northwest region in the USA. Thus, the objective of this project was to determine the optimal cluster threshold for improving yield and berry quality attributes of Alborz table grape in the inland Pacific Northwest United States during 2010 through 2012. Non-thinned control vines had 71 clusters in 2010 but had 39 and 40 during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Clusters in non-thinned control vines were longer but lighter than those in the other treatments. Berries in the non-thinned control vines were always lighter in weight and smaller in size than those in the other treatments. Berries from vines with 28 clusters tended to have more uniform red color with lower overall green color while those from non-thinned control had more green color. Vines with 20 and 28 clusters tended to have greater soluble solids concentration (SSC) but those in non-thinned control and with 36 clusters had lower SSC. Overall, the cumulative yields of non-thinned control vines were similar to those with 36 clusters during two out of three years. Considering all quality attributes, between 28 and 36 clusters per vine was the optimal number for production of yield and quality attributes.
Edi Santosa,, Nobuo Sugiyama, Ani Kurniawati, Adolf Pieter Lontoh, Maryati Sari and Krisantini

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia. 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.

Key words: Amorphophallus muelleri, apomictic, Araceae, clonal variation, floral morphology, flower diversity, gibberellin, glucomannan, iles-iles, morphological variation, natural flowering, phenotypic plasticity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 15-29.

Abstract: Morphological variation in triploid apomicts Amorphophallus muelleri has been postulated low, here, we present for the first time macroscopic variation in floral morphology from natural and gibberellin treatments. Agamosporous A. muelleri exhibited morphological variations on 35 out of 45 floral characters. Organ variation was apparent on peduncle, spathe, stigma, carpel, and appendix; that could relate to different genetic background. It seems that gibberellin application at initial stage of flowering incresed the existing morphological variation; causing phenotypic plasticity in three characters, i.e., sheath length, disposition of second spathe and degree of limb apex shape. Present study implies that floral characters can be used as key to determine true-to-type of A. muelleri. Further study is needed to clarify the variation on apomict A. muelleri using approaches such as metabolomics and hormonal dynamic during flowering.
Katsumi Ohta1, Rintaro Makino1, Takashi Akihiro1 and Takaaki Nishijima2

1Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan. 2National Institute of Vegetable and Floriculture Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8519, Japan.

Key words: Flower number, lateral shoot length, photosynthetic rate, plant growth regulator, Solanum lycopersicum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 3-10.

Abstract: The effect of planting densities on yield, plant morphology, and physiological characteristics in determinate-type cooking Suzukoma tomato were examined [high density (HD), medium density (MD), and low density (LD), corresponding to 792, 396, and 264 plants a11]. Although the fruit yield per plant under HD was 0.6 and 0.5-fold lower than that under MD and LD, respectively, the yield per area under HD was 1.2- and 1.5-fold higher than that under MD and LD, respectively, because planting density under HD was 1.5- and 3.0-fold higher than under MD and LD, respectively. There were no differences among planting densities of fruit set ratio, fruit weight, marketable fruit ratio, and soluble solids content. Lateral shoot length at the first cotyledonary node and third to fifth true leaf nodes under HD was shorter than one third of those under LD. Hence, the total numbers of flowers and fruits per plant were the lowest under HD. The extent of reduced photosynthetic rates and SPAD values for the third, fifth, and seventh true leaves under HD were not so larger compared to LD, despite being extremely reduced photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) at a low position in the plant community. The causes of decreased lateral shoot length at intermediate nodes under HD compared to LD suggested that the concentrations of isopentenyl adenine riboside (iPR) and trans-zeatin riboside (tZR) in stems, and IAA, iPR, tZR, and trans-zeatin (tZ) in lateral shoots under HD were lower than in those under LD. From these results, it was indicated that yield per area under HD was higher than under LD due to the morhological and physiological change of the plants by light conditions in the plant community.
T.T. Tuan, N.S. Thien, H.C. Nguyen, D.H. Nguyen, L.Q. Loan, T.D. Thai, N.T.H. Trang, N.H. Dung, D.D. Giap, T.X. Du, T.T. Huong and D.H. Truong

Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 9/621 Ha Noi Avenue. Linh Trung ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho, Tan Phong, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 3Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry, 140 Le Trong Tan, Tay Thanh, Tan Phu, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Key words: Banana extract, coconut water, Dendrobium officinale, DPPH assay, phytoconstituents.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 41-45.

Abstract: Tissue culture has become a promising technique to produce biomass and active secondary metabolisms in some species of medicinal plant in short periods of time. However, most of the plant growth regulators utilized as vital agents in the culture process are harmful to human bodies. In this study, Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo PLBs was subcultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose, 8 g L-1 agar, and various concentrations of coconut water or banana extract to investigate the effect of these organic additives on Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) proliferation and shoots regeneration. Subsequently, the chemical composition of the material was qualitatively analyzed by standard color reactions and the methanolic extract were also tested upon DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition assay for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity assessment, respectively. The nutrient screening showed that treating 0.3 g fresh PLBs of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo in medium containing 20% coconut water produced the highest PLB biomass (2.21 g) whereas the similar culturing using 20% banana extract generated only 1.98 g PLB biomass. The qualitative chemical tests recognized the presence of various phytoconstituents such as glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, and saponins. The DPPH assay revealed the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 0.84 mg.mL-1. In addition, this methanol extract showed a stronger inhibitory activity against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. These finding suggested that coconut water could be a potential alternative nutrient to common unhealthy regulators in the production of the biomass of interest.
Z. Khazaei Kojori, M. Rezaei, A. Sarkhosh and S. Gharangik

Horticulture Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood, Iran. 2Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida Gainesville FL 32611 U.S.A. 3Agricultural Biotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood, Iran.

Key words: Bud break, scale removal, growth inhibitors, plant growth regulator, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 50-54.

Abstract: We tested the effects of bud scale removal and different application rates of gibberellin (GA3) on bud break of dormant vegetative buds of two apricot cultivars. The shoot explants of "Jafari" and "Rajabali" cultivars were collected from one-year-old dormant branches and cultured in woody plant medium (WPM), supplemented with 2 mg L-1 of benzyl amino purine (BAP), 0.04 mg L-1 3-bndolebutyric acid (IBA). Treatments included three different concentrations of GA3 (4, 6, and 8 mg L-1), and removed and unremoved scale bud forms. The results indicated that none of the unremoved scale buds sprouted even when GA3 treatments were used (P?0.01). The average of bud sprouting in removed scales buds was 62.77%. The maximum bud sprouting (72.5%) occurred in treatment with 8 mg L-1 of GA3 and removed scale buds. There was a significant difference between two apricot cultivars on vegetative dormant bud break percentage when scale removal of buds was done. The removed scale bud of "Jafari" and "Rajabali" cultivars sprouted 55.22% and 70.33%, respectively. This study showed that the scales are probably containing inhibitory substances such as abscisic acid and by removing them, bud break will occur. Also, this method provides the possibility of in vitro culturing of apricot trees in non-growing seasons (winter).
M. Muthukumar, Anju Bajpai and S. Rajan

Division of Crop Improvement and Biotechnology, Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow, India.

Key words: Mango, chloroplast genes, hybridity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 55-59.

Abstract: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) encompasses of diverse varieties for different traits owing to their evolution by open pollination and natural selection processes over several generations. Phylogenetic relatedness and confirmation of hybridity of out-crossed progenies in mango are the pre-requisites for improving the precision of selection in trait based breeding. In this context, two chloroplast genes namely trnL and trnF genes localized within the chloroplast LSC region were used for sequence characterization of 8 mango varieties/hybrids to affirm hybridity and trace their inheritance. Sequence annotation and analysis revealed that both these genes were able to discriminate the 8 varieties. The hybridity of Arunika, a progeny generated from a cross between Amrapali and Vanraj, was also confirmed. Sequence level variations in the hybrids in comparison with the parents indicated that the inheritance of chloroplast genes is not strictly maternal but could be even paternal or biparental in nature. Thus, chloroplast genes which were usually thought to be markers for plant species discrimination could also apparently be used as genetic markers for hybridity confirmation at the population level.
Sinan Akin and Tolga Erdem

Nam?k Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Biosystem Engineering Department, 59030-Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: Walnut, evapotranspiration, vegetative growth parameters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 60-63.

Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the growing season 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the water use and vegetative growth parameters of walnut trees under different amount of irrigation water. The irrigation water was applied based on a ratio of Class A pan evaporation as 50, 75 and 100 % through drip irrigation. In the first year of the study in all treatments water was applied 8 times amounting between 58.30 and 116.59 mm irrigation water. In the second year, irrigation was applied 15 times and 95.26 and 190.47 mm of irrigation water was applied. Results revealed that the seasonal evapotranspiration in the treatments during the measurement period varied from 264.41 and 304.77 mm in 2014 and from 346.49 and 418.76 mm in 2015 depending on the irrigation treatment. The effects of different irrigation practices on the vegetative growth parameters of walnut trees were also studied. The study revealed that the amount of irrigation water applied to the walnut trees had no significant effect on vegetative growth parameters.
Jagdish Singh Arya, Narendra Singh, Preeti Singh Arya and Anil Kant

Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organization, C/o 56 APO, Leh-Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) India-194 101. DIHAR, DRDO, C/o 56 APO, Leh-Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) India-194101.

Key words: Allium cepa L., seedling, set, cold desert, trans-Himalaya

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pages 64-68.

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of two different planting materials (set and seedling) and genotypes on bulb yield, its quality and vegetative growth. The experimental material comprised of two planting material and ten genotypes. The experiments were conducted at High Altitude Research, Defence Research and Development Organization, Leh during 2013 and 2014 in Randomized Block Design with five replications. There was significant effect of planting material and genotypes on all the studied parameters. Wall Brown genotype showed highest plant survival, chlorophyll content, days to maturity, polar diameter, equatorial diameter, average bulb weight and bulb yield when grown through set among all the genotypes. The highest plant height and number of leaves, leaf area, were obtained in the genotype Brown Spanish. The highest TSS and dry matter were observed in the genotype Red Cereole. The lowest double/deformed bulbs and neck thickness was observed in the genotypes Lock Roy and Red Cereole. The results indicated that all the genotypes under set planting performed better than seedling ones.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture